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Cross Layer Adaptation of Check intervals in low power listening MAC protocols for lifetime improvement in Wireless Sensor Networks.

Escolar S, Chessa S, Carretero J, Marinescu MC - Sensors (Basel) (2012)

Bottom Line: We propose Cross Layer Adaptation of Check intervals (CLAC), a novel protocol intended to reduce the energy consumption of the nodes without significantly increasing the delay.CLAC uses routing and MAC layer information to compute a delay that matches the packet arrival time.The simulation results confirm that CLAC improves the network lifetime at no additional packet loss and without affecting the end-to-end delay.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Computer Science Department, University Carlos III of Madrid, Avda. Universidad 30, Madrid 28911, Spain. mariasoledad.escolar@uc3m.es

ABSTRACT
Preamble sampling-based MAC protocols designed for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) are aimed at prolonging the lifetime of the nodes by scheduling their times of activity. This scheduling exploits node synchronization to find the right trade-off between energy consumption and delay. In this paper we consider the problem of node synchronization in preamble sampling protocols. We propose Cross Layer Adaptation of Check intervals (CLAC), a novel protocol intended to reduce the energy consumption of the nodes without significantly increasing the delay. Our protocol modifies the scheduling of the nodes based on estimating the delay experienced by a packet that travels along a multi-hop path. CLAC uses routing and MAC layer information to compute a delay that matches the packet arrival time. We have implemented CLAC on top of well-known routing and MAC protocols for WSN, and we have evaluated our implementation using the Avrora simulator. The simulation results confirm that CLAC improves the network lifetime at no additional packet loss and without affecting the end-to-end delay.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

BoX-MAC-2 Tx/Rx scheme.
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f2-sensors-12-10511: BoX-MAC-2 Tx/Rx scheme.

Mentions: Some existing MAC protocols exploit implicit synchronization information to eliminate long preambles. Specifically, BoX-MAC [8] is an example of interruptible LPL protocol that disseminates the check intervals of the nodes by piggybacking, so that the time of activity is shared among neighboring nodes. BoX-MAC builds upon two successful MAC protocols: B-MAC and X-MAC. B-MAC [7] is a classical preamble sampling protocol; X-MAC [18] is a strobed preamble approach that allows the receiver to interrupt the long preamble as soon as it wakes up and determines that it is itself the intended recipient. For this reason, the address destination is also included in the preamble. In BoX-MAC a sender does not transmit a long preamble, rather, it repeatedly transmits the same data packet. The reception of the packets is done similar to the reception in B-MAC: once the receiver turns its radio on, it first examines whether there is an ongoing transmission, then it waits for the packet header in order to check whether it is itself the recipient of the packet. If that is the case, it keeps the radio on to receive the packet and immediately after receiving, it sends an acknowledgment (ACK) to the transmitter. Once the transmitter receives the ACK it stops retransmitting, as shown in Figure 2. Currently there exist two versions of BoX-MAC: BoX-MAC-1 that uses a predominantly physical-layer sampling approach, and BoX-MAC-2 that uses a predominantly link-layer packetized approach. The fact that BoX-MAC can be implemented on standard radio hardware makes it very appealing and, for this reason, this is the default implementation in TinyOS.


Cross Layer Adaptation of Check intervals in low power listening MAC protocols for lifetime improvement in Wireless Sensor Networks.

Escolar S, Chessa S, Carretero J, Marinescu MC - Sensors (Basel) (2012)

BoX-MAC-2 Tx/Rx scheme.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3472841&req=5

f2-sensors-12-10511: BoX-MAC-2 Tx/Rx scheme.
Mentions: Some existing MAC protocols exploit implicit synchronization information to eliminate long preambles. Specifically, BoX-MAC [8] is an example of interruptible LPL protocol that disseminates the check intervals of the nodes by piggybacking, so that the time of activity is shared among neighboring nodes. BoX-MAC builds upon two successful MAC protocols: B-MAC and X-MAC. B-MAC [7] is a classical preamble sampling protocol; X-MAC [18] is a strobed preamble approach that allows the receiver to interrupt the long preamble as soon as it wakes up and determines that it is itself the intended recipient. For this reason, the address destination is also included in the preamble. In BoX-MAC a sender does not transmit a long preamble, rather, it repeatedly transmits the same data packet. The reception of the packets is done similar to the reception in B-MAC: once the receiver turns its radio on, it first examines whether there is an ongoing transmission, then it waits for the packet header in order to check whether it is itself the recipient of the packet. If that is the case, it keeps the radio on to receive the packet and immediately after receiving, it sends an acknowledgment (ACK) to the transmitter. Once the transmitter receives the ACK it stops retransmitting, as shown in Figure 2. Currently there exist two versions of BoX-MAC: BoX-MAC-1 that uses a predominantly physical-layer sampling approach, and BoX-MAC-2 that uses a predominantly link-layer packetized approach. The fact that BoX-MAC can be implemented on standard radio hardware makes it very appealing and, for this reason, this is the default implementation in TinyOS.

Bottom Line: We propose Cross Layer Adaptation of Check intervals (CLAC), a novel protocol intended to reduce the energy consumption of the nodes without significantly increasing the delay.CLAC uses routing and MAC layer information to compute a delay that matches the packet arrival time.The simulation results confirm that CLAC improves the network lifetime at no additional packet loss and without affecting the end-to-end delay.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Computer Science Department, University Carlos III of Madrid, Avda. Universidad 30, Madrid 28911, Spain. mariasoledad.escolar@uc3m.es

ABSTRACT
Preamble sampling-based MAC protocols designed for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) are aimed at prolonging the lifetime of the nodes by scheduling their times of activity. This scheduling exploits node synchronization to find the right trade-off between energy consumption and delay. In this paper we consider the problem of node synchronization in preamble sampling protocols. We propose Cross Layer Adaptation of Check intervals (CLAC), a novel protocol intended to reduce the energy consumption of the nodes without significantly increasing the delay. Our protocol modifies the scheduling of the nodes based on estimating the delay experienced by a packet that travels along a multi-hop path. CLAC uses routing and MAC layer information to compute a delay that matches the packet arrival time. We have implemented CLAC on top of well-known routing and MAC protocols for WSN, and we have evaluated our implementation using the Avrora simulator. The simulation results confirm that CLAC improves the network lifetime at no additional packet loss and without affecting the end-to-end delay.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus