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Cross Layer Adaptation of Check intervals in low power listening MAC protocols for lifetime improvement in Wireless Sensor Networks.

Escolar S, Chessa S, Carretero J, Marinescu MC - Sensors (Basel) (2012)

Bottom Line: We propose Cross Layer Adaptation of Check intervals (CLAC), a novel protocol intended to reduce the energy consumption of the nodes without significantly increasing the delay.CLAC uses routing and MAC layer information to compute a delay that matches the packet arrival time.The simulation results confirm that CLAC improves the network lifetime at no additional packet loss and without affecting the end-to-end delay.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Computer Science Department, University Carlos III of Madrid, Avda. Universidad 30, Madrid 28911, Spain. mariasoledad.escolar@uc3m.es

ABSTRACT
Preamble sampling-based MAC protocols designed for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) are aimed at prolonging the lifetime of the nodes by scheduling their times of activity. This scheduling exploits node synchronization to find the right trade-off between energy consumption and delay. In this paper we consider the problem of node synchronization in preamble sampling protocols. We propose Cross Layer Adaptation of Check intervals (CLAC), a novel protocol intended to reduce the energy consumption of the nodes without significantly increasing the delay. Our protocol modifies the scheduling of the nodes based on estimating the delay experienced by a packet that travels along a multi-hop path. CLAC uses routing and MAC layer information to compute a delay that matches the packet arrival time. We have implemented CLAC on top of well-known routing and MAC protocols for WSN, and we have evaluated our implementation using the Avrora simulator. The simulation results confirm that CLAC improves the network lifetime at no additional packet loss and without affecting the end-to-end delay.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Basic preamble sampling scheme.
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f1-sensors-12-10511: Basic preamble sampling scheme.

Mentions: To ensure that a packet is correctly received by its recipient, the LPL sender transmits a very long preamble immediately before the actual packet. This preamble spans the whole check interval to ensure that, when the receiver starts its check interval, it detects the preamble and remains in active mode for the time necessary to receive the packet. Figure 1 illustrates the strategy used in this technique. The protocol presents some disadvantages, such as an excessive amount of energy consumption as compared to approaches based on check intervals as well as a high overhead as a consequence of the transmission and reception of very long preambles. The overhearing is also very high, since the packet has to be completely received to determine its destination. Another limitation of these approaches is that they cannot be applied to all types of networks, specifically, those networks where the preamble is fixed and limited to a few bytes, such as IEEE 802.15.4-compliant networks [16,17] (note that, however, to address the latest point, there exist other approaches based on sending short preambles such as X-MAC [18]). For these reasons, many variants and modifications of the original protocol have been proposed. In particular, we highlight WiseMAC [6], an energy efficient MAC protocol based on synchronized preamble sampling. WiseMAC considers infrastructure networks and assumes multiple access points that are usually energy unconstrained. WiseMAC focuses on the downlink problem: the communication from the access point to the nodes. The basic idea behind WiseMAC is to reduce the length of the preamble based on the knowledge of the receiver's sampling schedule, which is piggybacked into the acknowledgment packets. Thus, the sender starts to transmit the preamble just a short time before the wake-up time of the receiver. Another approach is VLPM [19] that considers both the downlink and uplink problem for Wireless Body Area Networks (WBAN). In VLPM, the nodes are equipped with both a low-power transmitter (employed for sending wake-up packets before sending data) and a receiver (employed for continuous monitoring of the activity on channels).


Cross Layer Adaptation of Check intervals in low power listening MAC protocols for lifetime improvement in Wireless Sensor Networks.

Escolar S, Chessa S, Carretero J, Marinescu MC - Sensors (Basel) (2012)

Basic preamble sampling scheme.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3472841&req=5

f1-sensors-12-10511: Basic preamble sampling scheme.
Mentions: To ensure that a packet is correctly received by its recipient, the LPL sender transmits a very long preamble immediately before the actual packet. This preamble spans the whole check interval to ensure that, when the receiver starts its check interval, it detects the preamble and remains in active mode for the time necessary to receive the packet. Figure 1 illustrates the strategy used in this technique. The protocol presents some disadvantages, such as an excessive amount of energy consumption as compared to approaches based on check intervals as well as a high overhead as a consequence of the transmission and reception of very long preambles. The overhearing is also very high, since the packet has to be completely received to determine its destination. Another limitation of these approaches is that they cannot be applied to all types of networks, specifically, those networks where the preamble is fixed and limited to a few bytes, such as IEEE 802.15.4-compliant networks [16,17] (note that, however, to address the latest point, there exist other approaches based on sending short preambles such as X-MAC [18]). For these reasons, many variants and modifications of the original protocol have been proposed. In particular, we highlight WiseMAC [6], an energy efficient MAC protocol based on synchronized preamble sampling. WiseMAC considers infrastructure networks and assumes multiple access points that are usually energy unconstrained. WiseMAC focuses on the downlink problem: the communication from the access point to the nodes. The basic idea behind WiseMAC is to reduce the length of the preamble based on the knowledge of the receiver's sampling schedule, which is piggybacked into the acknowledgment packets. Thus, the sender starts to transmit the preamble just a short time before the wake-up time of the receiver. Another approach is VLPM [19] that considers both the downlink and uplink problem for Wireless Body Area Networks (WBAN). In VLPM, the nodes are equipped with both a low-power transmitter (employed for sending wake-up packets before sending data) and a receiver (employed for continuous monitoring of the activity on channels).

Bottom Line: We propose Cross Layer Adaptation of Check intervals (CLAC), a novel protocol intended to reduce the energy consumption of the nodes without significantly increasing the delay.CLAC uses routing and MAC layer information to compute a delay that matches the packet arrival time.The simulation results confirm that CLAC improves the network lifetime at no additional packet loss and without affecting the end-to-end delay.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Computer Science Department, University Carlos III of Madrid, Avda. Universidad 30, Madrid 28911, Spain. mariasoledad.escolar@uc3m.es

ABSTRACT
Preamble sampling-based MAC protocols designed for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) are aimed at prolonging the lifetime of the nodes by scheduling their times of activity. This scheduling exploits node synchronization to find the right trade-off between energy consumption and delay. In this paper we consider the problem of node synchronization in preamble sampling protocols. We propose Cross Layer Adaptation of Check intervals (CLAC), a novel protocol intended to reduce the energy consumption of the nodes without significantly increasing the delay. Our protocol modifies the scheduling of the nodes based on estimating the delay experienced by a packet that travels along a multi-hop path. CLAC uses routing and MAC layer information to compute a delay that matches the packet arrival time. We have implemented CLAC on top of well-known routing and MAC protocols for WSN, and we have evaluated our implementation using the Avrora simulator. The simulation results confirm that CLAC improves the network lifetime at no additional packet loss and without affecting the end-to-end delay.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus