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A search strategy of Level-Based Flooding for the Internet of Things.

Qiu T, Ding Y, Xia F, Ma H - Sensors (Basel) (2012)

Bottom Line: Query packets are broadcast in the network according to the levels of nodes.Upon receiving a query packet, sensor nodes decide how to process it according to the percentage of neighbors that have processed it.We show by extensive simulations that the performance of LBF in terms of cost and latency is much better than that of original flooding, and LBF can be used in IoT of different scales.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Software, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116620, China. qiutie@dlut.edu.cn

ABSTRACT
This paper deals with the query problem in the Internet of Things (IoT). Flooding is an important query strategy. However, original flooding is prone to cause heavy network loads. To address this problem, we propose a variant of flooding, called Level-Based Flooding (LBF). With LBF, the whole network is divided into several levels according to the distances (i.e., hops) between the sensor nodes and the sink node. The sink node knows the level information of each node. Query packets are broadcast in the network according to the levels of nodes. Upon receiving a query packet, sensor nodes decide how to process it according to the percentage of neighbors that have processed it. When the target node receives the query packet, it sends its data back to the sink node via random walk. We show by extensive simulations that the performance of LBF in terms of cost and latency is much better than that of original flooding, and LBF can be used in IoT of different scales.

No MeSH data available.


The message packet's spreading process in a network with basic flooding. The periphery of the infected nodes is shown by the full curve. The communication areas of nodes are shown by virtual curves.
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f3-sensors-12-10163: The message packet's spreading process in a network with basic flooding. The periphery of the infected nodes is shown by the full curve. The communication areas of nodes are shown by virtual curves.

Mentions: Basic flooding starts with a source node broadcasting a packet to all neighbors. Each of those neighbors in turn rebroadcasts the packet exactly one time and this continues until that all reachable network nodes have received the packet. There are two kinds of nodes in the network. One kind are Susceptible Nodes (SN), which haven't processed the message packet yet. Another kind is Infective Nodes (IN), which have processed the message packet. Only susceptible nodes respond to the message packet. When all susceptible nodes are around an infective node, the node is rendered dead and doesn't contribute further to the query packet spread. As the query packet diffuses in the network, there is a circle region of infected nodes centered at the source node (usually the sink node) which grows outwards with time, ultimately reaching the whole network. The spreading process is shown in Figure 3.


A search strategy of Level-Based Flooding for the Internet of Things.

Qiu T, Ding Y, Xia F, Ma H - Sensors (Basel) (2012)

The message packet's spreading process in a network with basic flooding. The periphery of the infected nodes is shown by the full curve. The communication areas of nodes are shown by virtual curves.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3472822&req=5

f3-sensors-12-10163: The message packet's spreading process in a network with basic flooding. The periphery of the infected nodes is shown by the full curve. The communication areas of nodes are shown by virtual curves.
Mentions: Basic flooding starts with a source node broadcasting a packet to all neighbors. Each of those neighbors in turn rebroadcasts the packet exactly one time and this continues until that all reachable network nodes have received the packet. There are two kinds of nodes in the network. One kind are Susceptible Nodes (SN), which haven't processed the message packet yet. Another kind is Infective Nodes (IN), which have processed the message packet. Only susceptible nodes respond to the message packet. When all susceptible nodes are around an infective node, the node is rendered dead and doesn't contribute further to the query packet spread. As the query packet diffuses in the network, there is a circle region of infected nodes centered at the source node (usually the sink node) which grows outwards with time, ultimately reaching the whole network. The spreading process is shown in Figure 3.

Bottom Line: Query packets are broadcast in the network according to the levels of nodes.Upon receiving a query packet, sensor nodes decide how to process it according to the percentage of neighbors that have processed it.We show by extensive simulations that the performance of LBF in terms of cost and latency is much better than that of original flooding, and LBF can be used in IoT of different scales.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Software, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116620, China. qiutie@dlut.edu.cn

ABSTRACT
This paper deals with the query problem in the Internet of Things (IoT). Flooding is an important query strategy. However, original flooding is prone to cause heavy network loads. To address this problem, we propose a variant of flooding, called Level-Based Flooding (LBF). With LBF, the whole network is divided into several levels according to the distances (i.e., hops) between the sensor nodes and the sink node. The sink node knows the level information of each node. Query packets are broadcast in the network according to the levels of nodes. Upon receiving a query packet, sensor nodes decide how to process it according to the percentage of neighbors that have processed it. When the target node receives the query packet, it sends its data back to the sink node via random walk. We show by extensive simulations that the performance of LBF in terms of cost and latency is much better than that of original flooding, and LBF can be used in IoT of different scales.

No MeSH data available.