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A search strategy of Level-Based Flooding for the Internet of Things.

Qiu T, Ding Y, Xia F, Ma H - Sensors (Basel) (2012)

Bottom Line: Query packets are broadcast in the network according to the levels of nodes.Upon receiving a query packet, sensor nodes decide how to process it according to the percentage of neighbors that have processed it.We show by extensive simulations that the performance of LBF in terms of cost and latency is much better than that of original flooding, and LBF can be used in IoT of different scales.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Software, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116620, China. qiutie@dlut.edu.cn

ABSTRACT
This paper deals with the query problem in the Internet of Things (IoT). Flooding is an important query strategy. However, original flooding is prone to cause heavy network loads. To address this problem, we propose a variant of flooding, called Level-Based Flooding (LBF). With LBF, the whole network is divided into several levels according to the distances (i.e., hops) between the sensor nodes and the sink node. The sink node knows the level information of each node. Query packets are broadcast in the network according to the levels of nodes. Upon receiving a query packet, sensor nodes decide how to process it according to the percentage of neighbors that have processed it. When the target node receives the query packet, it sends its data back to the sink node via random walk. We show by extensive simulations that the performance of LBF in terms of cost and latency is much better than that of original flooding, and LBF can be used in IoT of different scales.

No MeSH data available.


Meaning of p. The spreading process is shown by full curve. The communication radius of Node k is presented by circle curve.
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f11-sensors-12-10163: Meaning of p. The spreading process is shown by full curve. The communication radius of Node k is presented by circle curve.

Mentions: When receiving a previously unseen packet, an intermediate node can have three options to process it: rebroadcasting the packet, transmitting the packet to one of its neighbors that have not processed the packet or dropping the packet directly. Sensor nodes make localized decisions based on the packet's TTL value and parameter p, which stands for the real-time percentage of node's neighbors that have processed the receiving packet. The meaning of p is shown in Figure 11. The query packet is diffused from the sink node. We can see Node k has seven neighbors. Some neighbors of Node k are closer to the sink node (gray nodes in Figure 11), so they may process the query packet before Node k in each query process. When Node k processes the packet, three of its neighbors have already processed the packet and four of its neighbors have not processed the packet, so p can be computed by 3/7 = 0.428.


A search strategy of Level-Based Flooding for the Internet of Things.

Qiu T, Ding Y, Xia F, Ma H - Sensors (Basel) (2012)

Meaning of p. The spreading process is shown by full curve. The communication radius of Node k is presented by circle curve.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3472822&req=5

f11-sensors-12-10163: Meaning of p. The spreading process is shown by full curve. The communication radius of Node k is presented by circle curve.
Mentions: When receiving a previously unseen packet, an intermediate node can have three options to process it: rebroadcasting the packet, transmitting the packet to one of its neighbors that have not processed the packet or dropping the packet directly. Sensor nodes make localized decisions based on the packet's TTL value and parameter p, which stands for the real-time percentage of node's neighbors that have processed the receiving packet. The meaning of p is shown in Figure 11. The query packet is diffused from the sink node. We can see Node k has seven neighbors. Some neighbors of Node k are closer to the sink node (gray nodes in Figure 11), so they may process the query packet before Node k in each query process. When Node k processes the packet, three of its neighbors have already processed the packet and four of its neighbors have not processed the packet, so p can be computed by 3/7 = 0.428.

Bottom Line: Query packets are broadcast in the network according to the levels of nodes.Upon receiving a query packet, sensor nodes decide how to process it according to the percentage of neighbors that have processed it.We show by extensive simulations that the performance of LBF in terms of cost and latency is much better than that of original flooding, and LBF can be used in IoT of different scales.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Software, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116620, China. qiutie@dlut.edu.cn

ABSTRACT
This paper deals with the query problem in the Internet of Things (IoT). Flooding is an important query strategy. However, original flooding is prone to cause heavy network loads. To address this problem, we propose a variant of flooding, called Level-Based Flooding (LBF). With LBF, the whole network is divided into several levels according to the distances (i.e., hops) between the sensor nodes and the sink node. The sink node knows the level information of each node. Query packets are broadcast in the network according to the levels of nodes. Upon receiving a query packet, sensor nodes decide how to process it according to the percentage of neighbors that have processed it. When the target node receives the query packet, it sends its data back to the sink node via random walk. We show by extensive simulations that the performance of LBF in terms of cost and latency is much better than that of original flooding, and LBF can be used in IoT of different scales.

No MeSH data available.