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CMOS cell sensors for point-of-care diagnostics.

Adiguzel Y, Kulah H - Sensors (Basel) (2012)

Bottom Line: The burden of health-care related services in a global era with continuously increasing population and inefficient dissipation of the resources requires effective solutions.CMOS-based products can enable clinical tests in a fast, simple, safe, and reliable manner, with improved sensitivities.Portability due to diminished sensor dimensions and compactness of the test set-ups, along with low sample and power consumption, is another vital feature.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: METU-MEMS Research and Application Center, Middle East Technical University, Ankara 06800, Turkey. yekbun@metu.edu.tr

ABSTRACT
The burden of health-care related services in a global era with continuously increasing population and inefficient dissipation of the resources requires effective solutions. From this perspective, point-of-care diagnostics is a demanded field in clinics. It is also necessary both for prompt diagnosis and for providing health services evenly throughout the population, including the rural districts. The requirements can only be fulfilled by technologies whose productivity has already been proven, such as complementary metal-oxide-semiconductors (CMOS). CMOS-based products can enable clinical tests in a fast, simple, safe, and reliable manner, with improved sensitivities. Portability due to diminished sensor dimensions and compactness of the test set-ups, along with low sample and power consumption, is another vital feature. CMOS-based sensors for cell studies have the potential to become essential counterparts of point-of-care diagnostics technologies. Hence, this review attempts to inform on the sensors fabricated with CMOS technology for point-of-care diagnostic studies, with a focus on CMOS image sensors and capacitance sensors for cell studies.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Micrographs of the fabricated optical and electrochemical dual-image CMOS sensor [86]. The combined pixel array was a 128 × 128 CMOS optical image sensor, partly replaced with electrochemical sensing pixels [86]. The sensor had 8 × 8 embedded electrochemical pixel array that were obtained through the substitution of light sensing pixels in the optical image sensor [86]. The light-sensing pixel was a modified three-transistor CMOS active pixel sensor (7.5 × 7.5 μm) [86]. The size of the electrochemical-sensing pixel was 60 × 60 μm and it contained conductively coupled electric sensing electrode (30.5 × 30.5 μm) with a transmission-gate switch for row selection [86]. Mismatch in the operating speed between the optical image sensor and electrochemical image sensor was compensated by designing the optical and the electrochemical pixel arrays to work independently [86]. Reproduced with the permission of Elsevier.
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f8-sensors-12-10042: Micrographs of the fabricated optical and electrochemical dual-image CMOS sensor [86]. The combined pixel array was a 128 × 128 CMOS optical image sensor, partly replaced with electrochemical sensing pixels [86]. The sensor had 8 × 8 embedded electrochemical pixel array that were obtained through the substitution of light sensing pixels in the optical image sensor [86]. The light-sensing pixel was a modified three-transistor CMOS active pixel sensor (7.5 × 7.5 μm) [86]. The size of the electrochemical-sensing pixel was 60 × 60 μm and it contained conductively coupled electric sensing electrode (30.5 × 30.5 μm) with a transmission-gate switch for row selection [86]. Mismatch in the operating speed between the optical image sensor and electrochemical image sensor was compensated by designing the optical and the electrochemical pixel arrays to work independently [86]. Reproduced with the permission of Elsevier.

Mentions: Optical and electrical dual-image sensor was developed for on-chip active electronic measurements with the sensing electrode exposed on the surface in order to establish conductive coupling to the on-chip measurement target [86]. Dual image profile was adapted both to receive image and to perform electrochemical measurements of the sample with a 2D arrayed voltammetry in an on-chip configuration, simultaneously and independently [78]. The sensor was achieved by implementing 8 × 8 pixel array electrochemical sensor into a 128 × 128 active pixel sensor CMOS image sensor, and the current range of the electrochemical measurement function was measured to be approximately 10 nA and 100 μA [86]. In addition to using optical and electrochemical sensing functions complementarily, authors expected to detect electrochemiluminesence in combination, as shown in Figure 7 below. This dual-function chip (Figure 8) was not demonstrated with the cells but the concept well suits for the cell-based studies.


CMOS cell sensors for point-of-care diagnostics.

Adiguzel Y, Kulah H - Sensors (Basel) (2012)

Micrographs of the fabricated optical and electrochemical dual-image CMOS sensor [86]. The combined pixel array was a 128 × 128 CMOS optical image sensor, partly replaced with electrochemical sensing pixels [86]. The sensor had 8 × 8 embedded electrochemical pixel array that were obtained through the substitution of light sensing pixels in the optical image sensor [86]. The light-sensing pixel was a modified three-transistor CMOS active pixel sensor (7.5 × 7.5 μm) [86]. The size of the electrochemical-sensing pixel was 60 × 60 μm and it contained conductively coupled electric sensing electrode (30.5 × 30.5 μm) with a transmission-gate switch for row selection [86]. Mismatch in the operating speed between the optical image sensor and electrochemical image sensor was compensated by designing the optical and the electrochemical pixel arrays to work independently [86]. Reproduced with the permission of Elsevier.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3472815&req=5

f8-sensors-12-10042: Micrographs of the fabricated optical and electrochemical dual-image CMOS sensor [86]. The combined pixel array was a 128 × 128 CMOS optical image sensor, partly replaced with electrochemical sensing pixels [86]. The sensor had 8 × 8 embedded electrochemical pixel array that were obtained through the substitution of light sensing pixels in the optical image sensor [86]. The light-sensing pixel was a modified three-transistor CMOS active pixel sensor (7.5 × 7.5 μm) [86]. The size of the electrochemical-sensing pixel was 60 × 60 μm and it contained conductively coupled electric sensing electrode (30.5 × 30.5 μm) with a transmission-gate switch for row selection [86]. Mismatch in the operating speed between the optical image sensor and electrochemical image sensor was compensated by designing the optical and the electrochemical pixel arrays to work independently [86]. Reproduced with the permission of Elsevier.
Mentions: Optical and electrical dual-image sensor was developed for on-chip active electronic measurements with the sensing electrode exposed on the surface in order to establish conductive coupling to the on-chip measurement target [86]. Dual image profile was adapted both to receive image and to perform electrochemical measurements of the sample with a 2D arrayed voltammetry in an on-chip configuration, simultaneously and independently [78]. The sensor was achieved by implementing 8 × 8 pixel array electrochemical sensor into a 128 × 128 active pixel sensor CMOS image sensor, and the current range of the electrochemical measurement function was measured to be approximately 10 nA and 100 μA [86]. In addition to using optical and electrochemical sensing functions complementarily, authors expected to detect electrochemiluminesence in combination, as shown in Figure 7 below. This dual-function chip (Figure 8) was not demonstrated with the cells but the concept well suits for the cell-based studies.

Bottom Line: The burden of health-care related services in a global era with continuously increasing population and inefficient dissipation of the resources requires effective solutions.CMOS-based products can enable clinical tests in a fast, simple, safe, and reliable manner, with improved sensitivities.Portability due to diminished sensor dimensions and compactness of the test set-ups, along with low sample and power consumption, is another vital feature.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: METU-MEMS Research and Application Center, Middle East Technical University, Ankara 06800, Turkey. yekbun@metu.edu.tr

ABSTRACT
The burden of health-care related services in a global era with continuously increasing population and inefficient dissipation of the resources requires effective solutions. From this perspective, point-of-care diagnostics is a demanded field in clinics. It is also necessary both for prompt diagnosis and for providing health services evenly throughout the population, including the rural districts. The requirements can only be fulfilled by technologies whose productivity has already been proven, such as complementary metal-oxide-semiconductors (CMOS). CMOS-based products can enable clinical tests in a fast, simple, safe, and reliable manner, with improved sensitivities. Portability due to diminished sensor dimensions and compactness of the test set-ups, along with low sample and power consumption, is another vital feature. CMOS-based sensors for cell studies have the potential to become essential counterparts of point-of-care diagnostics technologies. Hence, this review attempts to inform on the sensors fabricated with CMOS technology for point-of-care diagnostic studies, with a focus on CMOS image sensors and capacitance sensors for cell studies.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus