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CMOS cell sensors for point-of-care diagnostics.

Adiguzel Y, Kulah H - Sensors (Basel) (2012)

Bottom Line: The burden of health-care related services in a global era with continuously increasing population and inefficient dissipation of the resources requires effective solutions.CMOS-based products can enable clinical tests in a fast, simple, safe, and reliable manner, with improved sensitivities.Portability due to diminished sensor dimensions and compactness of the test set-ups, along with low sample and power consumption, is another vital feature.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: METU-MEMS Research and Application Center, Middle East Technical University, Ankara 06800, Turkey. yekbun@metu.edu.tr

ABSTRACT
The burden of health-care related services in a global era with continuously increasing population and inefficient dissipation of the resources requires effective solutions. From this perspective, point-of-care diagnostics is a demanded field in clinics. It is also necessary both for prompt diagnosis and for providing health services evenly throughout the population, including the rural districts. The requirements can only be fulfilled by technologies whose productivity has already been proven, such as complementary metal-oxide-semiconductors (CMOS). CMOS-based products can enable clinical tests in a fast, simple, safe, and reliable manner, with improved sensitivities. Portability due to diminished sensor dimensions and compactness of the test set-ups, along with low sample and power consumption, is another vital feature. CMOS-based sensors for cell studies have the potential to become essential counterparts of point-of-care diagnostics technologies. Hence, this review attempts to inform on the sensors fabricated with CMOS technology for point-of-care diagnostic studies, with a focus on CMOS image sensors and capacitance sensors for cell studies.

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Illustration of the range of concepts and configurations of on-chip “passive” electric sensing that are using the gate of a MOS transistor as the sensing input, namely the capacitive coupling (a), conductive coupling (b), and ISFET type (c) [79]. Reproduced from the Open Access publication Materials.
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f6-sensors-12-10042: Illustration of the range of concepts and configurations of on-chip “passive” electric sensing that are using the gate of a MOS transistor as the sensing input, namely the capacitive coupling (a), conductive coupling (b), and ISFET type (c) [79]. Reproduced from the Open Access publication Materials.

Mentions: Recently, Tokuda and co-workers [79] described the APS design that is currently in use in most CMOS image sensors as the only realistic light sensing architecture for multifunctional realization of optical and electric sensing devices. Photodiode structure used in conventional APS circuitry, which is 3-transistor APS, can be replaced with a photogate structure [79]. Alternatively, in some fabrication technologies, a pinned photodiode is available for superior performance (4-transistor APS) [79]. Electric sensing architecture can as well be varied for achievement of multifunctional CMOS image sensors. Capacitive and conductive couplings are possible in the “passive” configuration, wherein only a small amount of capacitive charge transfer occurs between the sensing input and measurement target with no net current flow in between [Figure 6(a,b)]. Ion sensitive field-effect-transistor (ISFET) can be included in this measurement scheme [Figure 6(c)]. These measurement schemes can be realized with circuits as simple as APS.


CMOS cell sensors for point-of-care diagnostics.

Adiguzel Y, Kulah H - Sensors (Basel) (2012)

Illustration of the range of concepts and configurations of on-chip “passive” electric sensing that are using the gate of a MOS transistor as the sensing input, namely the capacitive coupling (a), conductive coupling (b), and ISFET type (c) [79]. Reproduced from the Open Access publication Materials.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3472815&req=5

f6-sensors-12-10042: Illustration of the range of concepts and configurations of on-chip “passive” electric sensing that are using the gate of a MOS transistor as the sensing input, namely the capacitive coupling (a), conductive coupling (b), and ISFET type (c) [79]. Reproduced from the Open Access publication Materials.
Mentions: Recently, Tokuda and co-workers [79] described the APS design that is currently in use in most CMOS image sensors as the only realistic light sensing architecture for multifunctional realization of optical and electric sensing devices. Photodiode structure used in conventional APS circuitry, which is 3-transistor APS, can be replaced with a photogate structure [79]. Alternatively, in some fabrication technologies, a pinned photodiode is available for superior performance (4-transistor APS) [79]. Electric sensing architecture can as well be varied for achievement of multifunctional CMOS image sensors. Capacitive and conductive couplings are possible in the “passive” configuration, wherein only a small amount of capacitive charge transfer occurs between the sensing input and measurement target with no net current flow in between [Figure 6(a,b)]. Ion sensitive field-effect-transistor (ISFET) can be included in this measurement scheme [Figure 6(c)]. These measurement schemes can be realized with circuits as simple as APS.

Bottom Line: The burden of health-care related services in a global era with continuously increasing population and inefficient dissipation of the resources requires effective solutions.CMOS-based products can enable clinical tests in a fast, simple, safe, and reliable manner, with improved sensitivities.Portability due to diminished sensor dimensions and compactness of the test set-ups, along with low sample and power consumption, is another vital feature.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: METU-MEMS Research and Application Center, Middle East Technical University, Ankara 06800, Turkey. yekbun@metu.edu.tr

ABSTRACT
The burden of health-care related services in a global era with continuously increasing population and inefficient dissipation of the resources requires effective solutions. From this perspective, point-of-care diagnostics is a demanded field in clinics. It is also necessary both for prompt diagnosis and for providing health services evenly throughout the population, including the rural districts. The requirements can only be fulfilled by technologies whose productivity has already been proven, such as complementary metal-oxide-semiconductors (CMOS). CMOS-based products can enable clinical tests in a fast, simple, safe, and reliable manner, with improved sensitivities. Portability due to diminished sensor dimensions and compactness of the test set-ups, along with low sample and power consumption, is another vital feature. CMOS-based sensors for cell studies have the potential to become essential counterparts of point-of-care diagnostics technologies. Hence, this review attempts to inform on the sensors fabricated with CMOS technology for point-of-care diagnostic studies, with a focus on CMOS image sensors and capacitance sensors for cell studies.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus