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Gelam honey scavenges peroxynitrite during the immune response.

Kassim M, Mansor M, Suhaimi A, Ong G, Yusoff KM - Int J Mol Sci (2012)

Bottom Line: Gelam honey significantly improved the viability of LPS/IFN-γ-treated RAW 264.7 cells and inhibited nitric oxide production-similar to the effects observed with an inhibitor of inducible nitric oxide synthase (1400W).Honey inhibited peroxynitrite synthesis in LPS-treated rats.Thus, honey may attenuate inflammatory responses that lead to cell damage and death, suggesting its therapeutic uses for several inflammatory disorders.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Anesthesiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia; E-Mails: marzida@gmail.com (M.M.); gracieo@um.edu.my (G.O.).

ABSTRACT
Monocytes and macrophages are part of the first-line defense against bacterial, fungal, and viral infections during host immune responses; they express high levels of proinflammatory cytokines and cytotoxic molecules, including nitric oxide, reactive oxygen species, and their reaction product peroxynitrite. Peroxynitrite is a short-lived oxidant and a potent inducer of cell death. Honey, in addition to its well-known sweetening properties, is a natural antioxidant that has been used since ancient times in traditional medicine. We examined the ability of Gelam honey, derived from the Gelam tree (Melaleuca spp.), to scavenge peroxynitrite during immune responses mounted in the murine macrophage cell line RAW 264.7 when stimulated with lipopolysaccharide/interferon-γ (LPS/IFN-γ) and in LPS-treated rats. Gelam honey significantly improved the viability of LPS/IFN-γ-treated RAW 264.7 cells and inhibited nitric oxide production-similar to the effects observed with an inhibitor of inducible nitric oxide synthase (1400W). Furthermore, honey, but not 1400W, inhibited peroxynitrite production from the synthetic substrate 3-morpholinosydnonimine (SIN-1) and prevented the peroxynitrite-mediated conversion of dihydrorhodamine 123 to its fluorescent oxidation product rhodamine 123. Honey inhibited peroxynitrite synthesis in LPS-treated rats. Thus, honey may attenuate inflammatory responses that lead to cell damage and death, suggesting its therapeutic uses for several inflammatory disorders.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Effect of honey on NO production. NO production was estimated in RAW 264.7 macrophages pretreated for 1 h with the indicated concentrations of honey or the iNOS inhibitor 1400W (100 μM) and then exposed to 1 μg/mL LPS and 35 ng/mL IFN-γ (A) or 3 μg/mL LPS and 35 ng/mL IFN-γ (B) for 24 h. Nitrite accumulation in the supernatant was measured by the Griess reaction. All results are expressed as a percentage of the LPS/IFN-γ control (mean ± SEM of 5 independent experiments performed in duplicate). *** p < 0.001, ** p < 0.003, and * p < 0.05 indicate significant differences compared with the LPS/IFN-γ group.
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f3-ijms-13-12113: Effect of honey on NO production. NO production was estimated in RAW 264.7 macrophages pretreated for 1 h with the indicated concentrations of honey or the iNOS inhibitor 1400W (100 μM) and then exposed to 1 μg/mL LPS and 35 ng/mL IFN-γ (A) or 3 μg/mL LPS and 35 ng/mL IFN-γ (B) for 24 h. Nitrite accumulation in the supernatant was measured by the Griess reaction. All results are expressed as a percentage of the LPS/IFN-γ control (mean ± SEM of 5 independent experiments performed in duplicate). *** p < 0.001, ** p < 0.003, and * p < 0.05 indicate significant differences compared with the LPS/IFN-γ group.

Mentions: Honey also significantly inhibited NO formation in cells that were stimulated with the indicated concentration of LPS (1 μg/mL or 3 μg/mL). A dose-dependent effect was observed at higher concentrations of honey (Figure 3).


Gelam honey scavenges peroxynitrite during the immune response.

Kassim M, Mansor M, Suhaimi A, Ong G, Yusoff KM - Int J Mol Sci (2012)

Effect of honey on NO production. NO production was estimated in RAW 264.7 macrophages pretreated for 1 h with the indicated concentrations of honey or the iNOS inhibitor 1400W (100 μM) and then exposed to 1 μg/mL LPS and 35 ng/mL IFN-γ (A) or 3 μg/mL LPS and 35 ng/mL IFN-γ (B) for 24 h. Nitrite accumulation in the supernatant was measured by the Griess reaction. All results are expressed as a percentage of the LPS/IFN-γ control (mean ± SEM of 5 independent experiments performed in duplicate). *** p < 0.001, ** p < 0.003, and * p < 0.05 indicate significant differences compared with the LPS/IFN-γ group.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3472796&req=5

f3-ijms-13-12113: Effect of honey on NO production. NO production was estimated in RAW 264.7 macrophages pretreated for 1 h with the indicated concentrations of honey or the iNOS inhibitor 1400W (100 μM) and then exposed to 1 μg/mL LPS and 35 ng/mL IFN-γ (A) or 3 μg/mL LPS and 35 ng/mL IFN-γ (B) for 24 h. Nitrite accumulation in the supernatant was measured by the Griess reaction. All results are expressed as a percentage of the LPS/IFN-γ control (mean ± SEM of 5 independent experiments performed in duplicate). *** p < 0.001, ** p < 0.003, and * p < 0.05 indicate significant differences compared with the LPS/IFN-γ group.
Mentions: Honey also significantly inhibited NO formation in cells that were stimulated with the indicated concentration of LPS (1 μg/mL or 3 μg/mL). A dose-dependent effect was observed at higher concentrations of honey (Figure 3).

Bottom Line: Gelam honey significantly improved the viability of LPS/IFN-γ-treated RAW 264.7 cells and inhibited nitric oxide production-similar to the effects observed with an inhibitor of inducible nitric oxide synthase (1400W).Honey inhibited peroxynitrite synthesis in LPS-treated rats.Thus, honey may attenuate inflammatory responses that lead to cell damage and death, suggesting its therapeutic uses for several inflammatory disorders.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Anesthesiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia; E-Mails: marzida@gmail.com (M.M.); gracieo@um.edu.my (G.O.).

ABSTRACT
Monocytes and macrophages are part of the first-line defense against bacterial, fungal, and viral infections during host immune responses; they express high levels of proinflammatory cytokines and cytotoxic molecules, including nitric oxide, reactive oxygen species, and their reaction product peroxynitrite. Peroxynitrite is a short-lived oxidant and a potent inducer of cell death. Honey, in addition to its well-known sweetening properties, is a natural antioxidant that has been used since ancient times in traditional medicine. We examined the ability of Gelam honey, derived from the Gelam tree (Melaleuca spp.), to scavenge peroxynitrite during immune responses mounted in the murine macrophage cell line RAW 264.7 when stimulated with lipopolysaccharide/interferon-γ (LPS/IFN-γ) and in LPS-treated rats. Gelam honey significantly improved the viability of LPS/IFN-γ-treated RAW 264.7 cells and inhibited nitric oxide production-similar to the effects observed with an inhibitor of inducible nitric oxide synthase (1400W). Furthermore, honey, but not 1400W, inhibited peroxynitrite production from the synthetic substrate 3-morpholinosydnonimine (SIN-1) and prevented the peroxynitrite-mediated conversion of dihydrorhodamine 123 to its fluorescent oxidation product rhodamine 123. Honey inhibited peroxynitrite synthesis in LPS-treated rats. Thus, honey may attenuate inflammatory responses that lead to cell damage and death, suggesting its therapeutic uses for several inflammatory disorders.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus