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Gelam honey scavenges peroxynitrite during the immune response.

Kassim M, Mansor M, Suhaimi A, Ong G, Yusoff KM - Int J Mol Sci (2012)

Bottom Line: Gelam honey significantly improved the viability of LPS/IFN-γ-treated RAW 264.7 cells and inhibited nitric oxide production-similar to the effects observed with an inhibitor of inducible nitric oxide synthase (1400W).Honey inhibited peroxynitrite synthesis in LPS-treated rats.Thus, honey may attenuate inflammatory responses that lead to cell damage and death, suggesting its therapeutic uses for several inflammatory disorders.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Anesthesiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia; E-Mails: marzida@gmail.com (M.M.); gracieo@um.edu.my (G.O.).

ABSTRACT
Monocytes and macrophages are part of the first-line defense against bacterial, fungal, and viral infections during host immune responses; they express high levels of proinflammatory cytokines and cytotoxic molecules, including nitric oxide, reactive oxygen species, and their reaction product peroxynitrite. Peroxynitrite is a short-lived oxidant and a potent inducer of cell death. Honey, in addition to its well-known sweetening properties, is a natural antioxidant that has been used since ancient times in traditional medicine. We examined the ability of Gelam honey, derived from the Gelam tree (Melaleuca spp.), to scavenge peroxynitrite during immune responses mounted in the murine macrophage cell line RAW 264.7 when stimulated with lipopolysaccharide/interferon-γ (LPS/IFN-γ) and in LPS-treated rats. Gelam honey significantly improved the viability of LPS/IFN-γ-treated RAW 264.7 cells and inhibited nitric oxide production-similar to the effects observed with an inhibitor of inducible nitric oxide synthase (1400W). Furthermore, honey, but not 1400W, inhibited peroxynitrite production from the synthetic substrate 3-morpholinosydnonimine (SIN-1) and prevented the peroxynitrite-mediated conversion of dihydrorhodamine 123 to its fluorescent oxidation product rhodamine 123. Honey inhibited peroxynitrite synthesis in LPS-treated rats. Thus, honey may attenuate inflammatory responses that lead to cell damage and death, suggesting its therapeutic uses for several inflammatory disorders.

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Effect of honey and the iNOS inhibitor 1400W on the viability of RAW 264.7 macrophages. Cells were treated or not treated (control) with the indicated concentrations of honey or 100 μM 1400W. Cell viability was determined by the mitochondrial reduction of 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT). Data are expressed as the mean ± SEM of five independent experiments performed in triplicate. The viability of untreated cells was defined as 100%.
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f1-ijms-13-12113: Effect of honey and the iNOS inhibitor 1400W on the viability of RAW 264.7 macrophages. Cells were treated or not treated (control) with the indicated concentrations of honey or 100 μM 1400W. Cell viability was determined by the mitochondrial reduction of 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT). Data are expressed as the mean ± SEM of five independent experiments performed in triplicate. The viability of untreated cells was defined as 100%.

Mentions: In RAW 264.7 cells, none of the doses of honey resulted in cytotoxicity, and the concentrations of honey did not affect cell viability (Figure 1). However, the viability of cells stimulated with 1 μg/mL LPS and 35 ng/mL IFN-γ was <68% of the control (untreated) value.


Gelam honey scavenges peroxynitrite during the immune response.

Kassim M, Mansor M, Suhaimi A, Ong G, Yusoff KM - Int J Mol Sci (2012)

Effect of honey and the iNOS inhibitor 1400W on the viability of RAW 264.7 macrophages. Cells were treated or not treated (control) with the indicated concentrations of honey or 100 μM 1400W. Cell viability was determined by the mitochondrial reduction of 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT). Data are expressed as the mean ± SEM of five independent experiments performed in triplicate. The viability of untreated cells was defined as 100%.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3472796&req=5

f1-ijms-13-12113: Effect of honey and the iNOS inhibitor 1400W on the viability of RAW 264.7 macrophages. Cells were treated or not treated (control) with the indicated concentrations of honey or 100 μM 1400W. Cell viability was determined by the mitochondrial reduction of 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT). Data are expressed as the mean ± SEM of five independent experiments performed in triplicate. The viability of untreated cells was defined as 100%.
Mentions: In RAW 264.7 cells, none of the doses of honey resulted in cytotoxicity, and the concentrations of honey did not affect cell viability (Figure 1). However, the viability of cells stimulated with 1 μg/mL LPS and 35 ng/mL IFN-γ was <68% of the control (untreated) value.

Bottom Line: Gelam honey significantly improved the viability of LPS/IFN-γ-treated RAW 264.7 cells and inhibited nitric oxide production-similar to the effects observed with an inhibitor of inducible nitric oxide synthase (1400W).Honey inhibited peroxynitrite synthesis in LPS-treated rats.Thus, honey may attenuate inflammatory responses that lead to cell damage and death, suggesting its therapeutic uses for several inflammatory disorders.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Anesthesiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia; E-Mails: marzida@gmail.com (M.M.); gracieo@um.edu.my (G.O.).

ABSTRACT
Monocytes and macrophages are part of the first-line defense against bacterial, fungal, and viral infections during host immune responses; they express high levels of proinflammatory cytokines and cytotoxic molecules, including nitric oxide, reactive oxygen species, and their reaction product peroxynitrite. Peroxynitrite is a short-lived oxidant and a potent inducer of cell death. Honey, in addition to its well-known sweetening properties, is a natural antioxidant that has been used since ancient times in traditional medicine. We examined the ability of Gelam honey, derived from the Gelam tree (Melaleuca spp.), to scavenge peroxynitrite during immune responses mounted in the murine macrophage cell line RAW 264.7 when stimulated with lipopolysaccharide/interferon-γ (LPS/IFN-γ) and in LPS-treated rats. Gelam honey significantly improved the viability of LPS/IFN-γ-treated RAW 264.7 cells and inhibited nitric oxide production-similar to the effects observed with an inhibitor of inducible nitric oxide synthase (1400W). Furthermore, honey, but not 1400W, inhibited peroxynitrite production from the synthetic substrate 3-morpholinosydnonimine (SIN-1) and prevented the peroxynitrite-mediated conversion of dihydrorhodamine 123 to its fluorescent oxidation product rhodamine 123. Honey inhibited peroxynitrite synthesis in LPS-treated rats. Thus, honey may attenuate inflammatory responses that lead to cell damage and death, suggesting its therapeutic uses for several inflammatory disorders.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus