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Maternal phylogeny of a newly-found yak population in china.

Mipam TD, Wen Y, Fu C, Li S, Zhao H, Ai Y, Li L, Zhang L, Zou D - Int J Mol Sci (2012)

Bottom Line: This population has a special anatomical characteristic: an additional pair of ribs compared with other yak breeds.The Jinquan yaks were found to carry clades A and B from lineage I and clade C of lineage II, respectively.The special anatomic characteristic that we found in the Jinchuan population needs further studies based on nuclear data.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Ecological Conservation and Animal Husbandry Research and Development Base of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, Southwest University for Nationalities, Chengdu 610041, China; E-Mail: tdmipam@163.com ; College of Life Science and Technology, Southwest University for Nationalities, Chengdu 610041, China; E-Mails: swun-zhw@163.com (H.Z.); neoacnew@gmail.com (Y.A.); lulu860620@yahoo.com.cn (L.L.); shitouji27@yahoo.com.cn (L.Z.); swunzdq@yahoo.com.cn (D.Z.).

ABSTRACT
The Jinchuan yak is a new yak population identified in Sichuan, China. This population has a special anatomical characteristic: an additional pair of ribs compared with other yak breeds. The genetic structure of this population is unknown. In the present study, we investigated the maternal phylogeny of this special yak population using the mitochondrial DNA variation. A total of 23 Jinchuan yaks were sequenced for a 823-bp fragment of D-loop control region and three individuals were sequenced for the whole mtDNA genome with a length of 16,371-bp. To compare with the data from other yaks, we extracted sequence data from Genebank, including D-loop of 398 yaks (from 12 breeds) and 55 wild yaks, and whole mitochondrial genomes of 53 yaks (from 12 breeds) and 21 wild yaks. A total of 127 haplotypes were defined, based on the D-loop data. Thirteen haplotypes were defined from 23 mtDNA D-loop sequences of Jinchuan yaks, six of which were shared only by Jinchuan, and one was shared by Jinchuan and wild yaks. The Jinquan yaks were found to carry clades A and B from lineage I and clade C of lineage II, respectively. It was also suggested that the Jinchuan population has no distinct different phylogenetic relationship in maternal inheritance with other breeds of yak. The highly haplotype diversity of the Pali breed, Jinchuan population, Maiwa breed and Jiulong breed suggested that the yak was first domesticated from wild yaks in the middle Himalayan region and the northern Hengduan Mountains. The special anatomic characteristic that we found in the Jinchuan population needs further studies based on nuclear data.

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The skeleton of Jinchuan (a), Maiwa (b) and Jiulong (c) yak. We can find 15 ribs of one side in a, 14 ribs of one side in b and c.
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f2-ijms-13-11455: The skeleton of Jinchuan (a), Maiwa (b) and Jiulong (c) yak. We can find 15 ribs of one side in a, 14 ribs of one side in b and c.

Mentions: The domestic yak (Bos grunniens) is the symbolic animal living in alpine climates (between 2000 to 5000 m) on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) and adjacent highlands, such as Mongolia, Nepal, Bhutan, India, Pakistan, Afghanistan and countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States [1,2]. Few other domesticated animals could survive in such an environment. Over 95% of the yaks all over the world live in the QTP [2–4]. The yaks provide meat and milk, transportation, dung for fuel and hides for shelter. There are two major yak breeds that live in the Sichuan province of China: the valley-type Jiulong breed and the plateau grassland type Maiwa breed [2,3]. Recently, the Jinchuan yaks were observed in Maori and Akeli Village of Jinchuan County in Sichuan province. This region looks like an islet surrounded by high mountains and deep valleys (Figure 1). The geographic profile is latitudinal (101°40′E to 101°41′E) and longitudinal (31°32′N to 31°34′N). Compared with the valley type Jiulong breed and the plateau grassland type Maiwa breed, the Jinchuan yak has several special characteristics. First, recent investigation showed that 52% of Jinchuan yak individuals have 15 pairs of ribs while all other yaks have 14 pairs (Figure 2). Second, the reproductive rate of the Jinchuan yak (95%) is significantly higher than that of other breeds (70%~75%). Third, the Jinchuan yaks provide a better quality of milk and a higher yield of meat, and have a more powerful resistance to natural pressures. However, little investigation has been undertaken on the genetics of this population.


Maternal phylogeny of a newly-found yak population in china.

Mipam TD, Wen Y, Fu C, Li S, Zhao H, Ai Y, Li L, Zhang L, Zou D - Int J Mol Sci (2012)

The skeleton of Jinchuan (a), Maiwa (b) and Jiulong (c) yak. We can find 15 ribs of one side in a, 14 ribs of one side in b and c.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3472757&req=5

f2-ijms-13-11455: The skeleton of Jinchuan (a), Maiwa (b) and Jiulong (c) yak. We can find 15 ribs of one side in a, 14 ribs of one side in b and c.
Mentions: The domestic yak (Bos grunniens) is the symbolic animal living in alpine climates (between 2000 to 5000 m) on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) and adjacent highlands, such as Mongolia, Nepal, Bhutan, India, Pakistan, Afghanistan and countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States [1,2]. Few other domesticated animals could survive in such an environment. Over 95% of the yaks all over the world live in the QTP [2–4]. The yaks provide meat and milk, transportation, dung for fuel and hides for shelter. There are two major yak breeds that live in the Sichuan province of China: the valley-type Jiulong breed and the plateau grassland type Maiwa breed [2,3]. Recently, the Jinchuan yaks were observed in Maori and Akeli Village of Jinchuan County in Sichuan province. This region looks like an islet surrounded by high mountains and deep valleys (Figure 1). The geographic profile is latitudinal (101°40′E to 101°41′E) and longitudinal (31°32′N to 31°34′N). Compared with the valley type Jiulong breed and the plateau grassland type Maiwa breed, the Jinchuan yak has several special characteristics. First, recent investigation showed that 52% of Jinchuan yak individuals have 15 pairs of ribs while all other yaks have 14 pairs (Figure 2). Second, the reproductive rate of the Jinchuan yak (95%) is significantly higher than that of other breeds (70%~75%). Third, the Jinchuan yaks provide a better quality of milk and a higher yield of meat, and have a more powerful resistance to natural pressures. However, little investigation has been undertaken on the genetics of this population.

Bottom Line: This population has a special anatomical characteristic: an additional pair of ribs compared with other yak breeds.The Jinquan yaks were found to carry clades A and B from lineage I and clade C of lineage II, respectively.The special anatomic characteristic that we found in the Jinchuan population needs further studies based on nuclear data.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Ecological Conservation and Animal Husbandry Research and Development Base of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, Southwest University for Nationalities, Chengdu 610041, China; E-Mail: tdmipam@163.com ; College of Life Science and Technology, Southwest University for Nationalities, Chengdu 610041, China; E-Mails: swun-zhw@163.com (H.Z.); neoacnew@gmail.com (Y.A.); lulu860620@yahoo.com.cn (L.L.); shitouji27@yahoo.com.cn (L.Z.); swunzdq@yahoo.com.cn (D.Z.).

ABSTRACT
The Jinchuan yak is a new yak population identified in Sichuan, China. This population has a special anatomical characteristic: an additional pair of ribs compared with other yak breeds. The genetic structure of this population is unknown. In the present study, we investigated the maternal phylogeny of this special yak population using the mitochondrial DNA variation. A total of 23 Jinchuan yaks were sequenced for a 823-bp fragment of D-loop control region and three individuals were sequenced for the whole mtDNA genome with a length of 16,371-bp. To compare with the data from other yaks, we extracted sequence data from Genebank, including D-loop of 398 yaks (from 12 breeds) and 55 wild yaks, and whole mitochondrial genomes of 53 yaks (from 12 breeds) and 21 wild yaks. A total of 127 haplotypes were defined, based on the D-loop data. Thirteen haplotypes were defined from 23 mtDNA D-loop sequences of Jinchuan yaks, six of which were shared only by Jinchuan, and one was shared by Jinchuan and wild yaks. The Jinquan yaks were found to carry clades A and B from lineage I and clade C of lineage II, respectively. It was also suggested that the Jinchuan population has no distinct different phylogenetic relationship in maternal inheritance with other breeds of yak. The highly haplotype diversity of the Pali breed, Jinchuan population, Maiwa breed and Jiulong breed suggested that the yak was first domesticated from wild yaks in the middle Himalayan region and the northern Hengduan Mountains. The special anatomic characteristic that we found in the Jinchuan population needs further studies based on nuclear data.

Show MeSH