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Optimization of supercritical CO(2) extraction of fish oil from viscera of African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus).

Sarker MZ, Selamat J, Habib AS, Ferdosh S, Akanda MJ, Jaffri JM - Int J Mol Sci (2012)

Bottom Line: Optimum points were observed within the variables of temperature from 35 °C to 80 °C, pressure from 10 MPa to 40 MPa, flow rate from 1 mL/min to 3 mL/min and soaking time from 1 h to 4 h.However, the extraction parameters were found to be optimized at temperature 57.5 °C, pressure 40 MPa, flow rate 2.0 mL/min and soaking time 2.5 h.At this optimized condition, the highest oil yields were found to be 67.0% (g oil/100 g sample on dry basis) in the viscera of catfish which was reasonable to the yields of 78.0% extracted using the Soxhlet method.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, International Islamic University, Kuantan Campus, Kuantan 25200, Pahang, Malaysia; E-Mail: juliana@iium.edu.my.

ABSTRACT
Fish oil was extracted from the viscera of African Catfish using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO(2)). A Central Composite Design of Response Surface methodology (RSM) was employed to optimize the SC-CO(2) extraction parameters. The oil yield (Y) as response variable was executed against the four independent variables, namely pressure, temperature, flow rate and soaking time. The oil yield varied with the linear, quadratic and interaction of pressure, temperature, flow rate and soaking time. Optimum points were observed within the variables of temperature from 35 °C to 80 °C, pressure from 10 MPa to 40 MPa, flow rate from 1 mL/min to 3 mL/min and soaking time from 1 h to 4 h. However, the extraction parameters were found to be optimized at temperature 57.5 °C, pressure 40 MPa, flow rate 2.0 mL/min and soaking time 2.5 h. At this optimized condition, the highest oil yields were found to be 67.0% (g oil/100 g sample on dry basis) in the viscera of catfish which was reasonable to the yields of 78.0% extracted using the Soxhlet method.

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Response surface plot for the oil yield (Y) as a function of pressure and flow rate at a fixed temperature of 57.50 °C and soaking time of 2.5 h.
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f3-ijms-13-11312: Response surface plot for the oil yield (Y) as a function of pressure and flow rate at a fixed temperature of 57.50 °C and soaking time of 2.5 h.

Mentions: Figure 3 shows a significant interaction between pressure and flow rate on oil yield. Raising the pressure at constant temperature increased the density of CO2 as well as the extraction efficiency of the solutes. However, performing the extraction using SC-CO2 at high pressure is not always advisable, as at high pressure levels where the highly compressed CO2 may provoke a complexity in the extraction by introducing a repulse reaction between the solute and solvent [38]. Therefore, the combined effect of pressure and flow rate was not as significant as shown in Figure 3, while the flow rate was interacting with the temperature. Moreover, this leads to a decrease in yield at the time of fluid decompression, either by increasing analyte loss or by using an elevated pressure drop through the extraction cell [38].


Optimization of supercritical CO(2) extraction of fish oil from viscera of African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus).

Sarker MZ, Selamat J, Habib AS, Ferdosh S, Akanda MJ, Jaffri JM - Int J Mol Sci (2012)

Response surface plot for the oil yield (Y) as a function of pressure and flow rate at a fixed temperature of 57.50 °C and soaking time of 2.5 h.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3472746&req=5

f3-ijms-13-11312: Response surface plot for the oil yield (Y) as a function of pressure and flow rate at a fixed temperature of 57.50 °C and soaking time of 2.5 h.
Mentions: Figure 3 shows a significant interaction between pressure and flow rate on oil yield. Raising the pressure at constant temperature increased the density of CO2 as well as the extraction efficiency of the solutes. However, performing the extraction using SC-CO2 at high pressure is not always advisable, as at high pressure levels where the highly compressed CO2 may provoke a complexity in the extraction by introducing a repulse reaction between the solute and solvent [38]. Therefore, the combined effect of pressure and flow rate was not as significant as shown in Figure 3, while the flow rate was interacting with the temperature. Moreover, this leads to a decrease in yield at the time of fluid decompression, either by increasing analyte loss or by using an elevated pressure drop through the extraction cell [38].

Bottom Line: Optimum points were observed within the variables of temperature from 35 °C to 80 °C, pressure from 10 MPa to 40 MPa, flow rate from 1 mL/min to 3 mL/min and soaking time from 1 h to 4 h.However, the extraction parameters were found to be optimized at temperature 57.5 °C, pressure 40 MPa, flow rate 2.0 mL/min and soaking time 2.5 h.At this optimized condition, the highest oil yields were found to be 67.0% (g oil/100 g sample on dry basis) in the viscera of catfish which was reasonable to the yields of 78.0% extracted using the Soxhlet method.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, International Islamic University, Kuantan Campus, Kuantan 25200, Pahang, Malaysia; E-Mail: juliana@iium.edu.my.

ABSTRACT
Fish oil was extracted from the viscera of African Catfish using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO(2)). A Central Composite Design of Response Surface methodology (RSM) was employed to optimize the SC-CO(2) extraction parameters. The oil yield (Y) as response variable was executed against the four independent variables, namely pressure, temperature, flow rate and soaking time. The oil yield varied with the linear, quadratic and interaction of pressure, temperature, flow rate and soaking time. Optimum points were observed within the variables of temperature from 35 °C to 80 °C, pressure from 10 MPa to 40 MPa, flow rate from 1 mL/min to 3 mL/min and soaking time from 1 h to 4 h. However, the extraction parameters were found to be optimized at temperature 57.5 °C, pressure 40 MPa, flow rate 2.0 mL/min and soaking time 2.5 h. At this optimized condition, the highest oil yields were found to be 67.0% (g oil/100 g sample on dry basis) in the viscera of catfish which was reasonable to the yields of 78.0% extracted using the Soxhlet method.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus