Limits...
Optimization of supercritical CO(2) extraction of fish oil from viscera of African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus).

Sarker MZ, Selamat J, Habib AS, Ferdosh S, Akanda MJ, Jaffri JM - Int J Mol Sci (2012)

Bottom Line: Optimum points were observed within the variables of temperature from 35 °C to 80 °C, pressure from 10 MPa to 40 MPa, flow rate from 1 mL/min to 3 mL/min and soaking time from 1 h to 4 h.However, the extraction parameters were found to be optimized at temperature 57.5 °C, pressure 40 MPa, flow rate 2.0 mL/min and soaking time 2.5 h.At this optimized condition, the highest oil yields were found to be 67.0% (g oil/100 g sample on dry basis) in the viscera of catfish which was reasonable to the yields of 78.0% extracted using the Soxhlet method.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, International Islamic University, Kuantan Campus, Kuantan 25200, Pahang, Malaysia; E-Mail: juliana@iium.edu.my.

ABSTRACT
Fish oil was extracted from the viscera of African Catfish using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO(2)). A Central Composite Design of Response Surface methodology (RSM) was employed to optimize the SC-CO(2) extraction parameters. The oil yield (Y) as response variable was executed against the four independent variables, namely pressure, temperature, flow rate and soaking time. The oil yield varied with the linear, quadratic and interaction of pressure, temperature, flow rate and soaking time. Optimum points were observed within the variables of temperature from 35 °C to 80 °C, pressure from 10 MPa to 40 MPa, flow rate from 1 mL/min to 3 mL/min and soaking time from 1 h to 4 h. However, the extraction parameters were found to be optimized at temperature 57.5 °C, pressure 40 MPa, flow rate 2.0 mL/min and soaking time 2.5 h. At this optimized condition, the highest oil yields were found to be 67.0% (g oil/100 g sample on dry basis) in the viscera of catfish which was reasonable to the yields of 78.0% extracted using the Soxhlet method.

Show MeSH

Related in: MedlinePlus

Response surface plot for the oil yield (Y) as a function of temperature and flow rate at a fixed pressure 25 MPa and a soaking time of 2.5 h.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3472746&req=5

f2-ijms-13-11312: Response surface plot for the oil yield (Y) as a function of temperature and flow rate at a fixed pressure 25 MPa and a soaking time of 2.5 h.

Mentions: According to Figures 1 and 2, pressure and flow rate had similar effects on oil yield at constant temperature, thus the temperature interacted with pressure and flow rate. The solvent density, vapor pressure, and the solubility mode of the solute depend on these two variables. Consequently, it is very difficult to predict and elucidate the effect of temperature on oil yield. At constant pressure, the oil yield increased significantly with both temperature and flow rate (Figure 2), since high temperature decreases the density of CO2 and thus leads to an increase in vapor pressure of the solutes that improves the solubility as well as the mass transfer rate of solute, resulting in easier extraction of the desired compounds [25,36,37].


Optimization of supercritical CO(2) extraction of fish oil from viscera of African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus).

Sarker MZ, Selamat J, Habib AS, Ferdosh S, Akanda MJ, Jaffri JM - Int J Mol Sci (2012)

Response surface plot for the oil yield (Y) as a function of temperature and flow rate at a fixed pressure 25 MPa and a soaking time of 2.5 h.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3472746&req=5

f2-ijms-13-11312: Response surface plot for the oil yield (Y) as a function of temperature and flow rate at a fixed pressure 25 MPa and a soaking time of 2.5 h.
Mentions: According to Figures 1 and 2, pressure and flow rate had similar effects on oil yield at constant temperature, thus the temperature interacted with pressure and flow rate. The solvent density, vapor pressure, and the solubility mode of the solute depend on these two variables. Consequently, it is very difficult to predict and elucidate the effect of temperature on oil yield. At constant pressure, the oil yield increased significantly with both temperature and flow rate (Figure 2), since high temperature decreases the density of CO2 and thus leads to an increase in vapor pressure of the solutes that improves the solubility as well as the mass transfer rate of solute, resulting in easier extraction of the desired compounds [25,36,37].

Bottom Line: Optimum points were observed within the variables of temperature from 35 °C to 80 °C, pressure from 10 MPa to 40 MPa, flow rate from 1 mL/min to 3 mL/min and soaking time from 1 h to 4 h.However, the extraction parameters were found to be optimized at temperature 57.5 °C, pressure 40 MPa, flow rate 2.0 mL/min and soaking time 2.5 h.At this optimized condition, the highest oil yields were found to be 67.0% (g oil/100 g sample on dry basis) in the viscera of catfish which was reasonable to the yields of 78.0% extracted using the Soxhlet method.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, International Islamic University, Kuantan Campus, Kuantan 25200, Pahang, Malaysia; E-Mail: juliana@iium.edu.my.

ABSTRACT
Fish oil was extracted from the viscera of African Catfish using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO(2)). A Central Composite Design of Response Surface methodology (RSM) was employed to optimize the SC-CO(2) extraction parameters. The oil yield (Y) as response variable was executed against the four independent variables, namely pressure, temperature, flow rate and soaking time. The oil yield varied with the linear, quadratic and interaction of pressure, temperature, flow rate and soaking time. Optimum points were observed within the variables of temperature from 35 °C to 80 °C, pressure from 10 MPa to 40 MPa, flow rate from 1 mL/min to 3 mL/min and soaking time from 1 h to 4 h. However, the extraction parameters were found to be optimized at temperature 57.5 °C, pressure 40 MPa, flow rate 2.0 mL/min and soaking time 2.5 h. At this optimized condition, the highest oil yields were found to be 67.0% (g oil/100 g sample on dry basis) in the viscera of catfish which was reasonable to the yields of 78.0% extracted using the Soxhlet method.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus