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Optimization of supercritical CO(2) extraction of fish oil from viscera of African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus).

Sarker MZ, Selamat J, Habib AS, Ferdosh S, Akanda MJ, Jaffri JM - Int J Mol Sci (2012)

Bottom Line: Optimum points were observed within the variables of temperature from 35 °C to 80 °C, pressure from 10 MPa to 40 MPa, flow rate from 1 mL/min to 3 mL/min and soaking time from 1 h to 4 h.However, the extraction parameters were found to be optimized at temperature 57.5 °C, pressure 40 MPa, flow rate 2.0 mL/min and soaking time 2.5 h.At this optimized condition, the highest oil yields were found to be 67.0% (g oil/100 g sample on dry basis) in the viscera of catfish which was reasonable to the yields of 78.0% extracted using the Soxhlet method.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, International Islamic University, Kuantan Campus, Kuantan 25200, Pahang, Malaysia; E-Mail: juliana@iium.edu.my.

ABSTRACT
Fish oil was extracted from the viscera of African Catfish using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO(2)). A Central Composite Design of Response Surface methodology (RSM) was employed to optimize the SC-CO(2) extraction parameters. The oil yield (Y) as response variable was executed against the four independent variables, namely pressure, temperature, flow rate and soaking time. The oil yield varied with the linear, quadratic and interaction of pressure, temperature, flow rate and soaking time. Optimum points were observed within the variables of temperature from 35 °C to 80 °C, pressure from 10 MPa to 40 MPa, flow rate from 1 mL/min to 3 mL/min and soaking time from 1 h to 4 h. However, the extraction parameters were found to be optimized at temperature 57.5 °C, pressure 40 MPa, flow rate 2.0 mL/min and soaking time 2.5 h. At this optimized condition, the highest oil yields were found to be 67.0% (g oil/100 g sample on dry basis) in the viscera of catfish which was reasonable to the yields of 78.0% extracted using the Soxhlet method.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Response surface plot for the oil yield (Y) as a function of temperature and pressure at a fixed CO2 flow rate of 2 mL/min and soaking time of 2.5 h.
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f1-ijms-13-11312: Response surface plot for the oil yield (Y) as a function of temperature and pressure at a fixed CO2 flow rate of 2 mL/min and soaking time of 2.5 h.

Mentions: For a better understanding and representing of the significant (p < 0.05) statistical interaction of factors in response, a three dimensional (3D) surface data plot is highly recommended by Xu et al. [34], which is shown in Figure 1. It was sketched by keeping the temperature and pressure constants low, following which the oil yield was also found to be low. The yield significantly increased at relatively high pressure (>28 MPa) and medium to high temperature from 55 °C to 65 °C. The increasing effect of temperature and pressure was statistically significant (p < 0.05) on oil yield up to 65 °C. Above 65 °C, the oil yield gradually started to decrease with pressure, which is probably due to the reduction of CO2 density and solvation power of the SC-CO2. However, the effect of pressure changes (10 MPa to 40 MPa) on oil yield had a more noticeable and significant effect than that of temperature. Pressure elevation at a given temperature enhances the solubility of the oil in SC-CO2, which might improve the total oil yield [35]. Similar trends were also observed in the extraction of silkworm pupal oil using SC-CO2 [36,37]. Authors concluded that temperature has a negative effect on yield after a certain limit.


Optimization of supercritical CO(2) extraction of fish oil from viscera of African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus).

Sarker MZ, Selamat J, Habib AS, Ferdosh S, Akanda MJ, Jaffri JM - Int J Mol Sci (2012)

Response surface plot for the oil yield (Y) as a function of temperature and pressure at a fixed CO2 flow rate of 2 mL/min and soaking time of 2.5 h.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3472746&req=5

f1-ijms-13-11312: Response surface plot for the oil yield (Y) as a function of temperature and pressure at a fixed CO2 flow rate of 2 mL/min and soaking time of 2.5 h.
Mentions: For a better understanding and representing of the significant (p < 0.05) statistical interaction of factors in response, a three dimensional (3D) surface data plot is highly recommended by Xu et al. [34], which is shown in Figure 1. It was sketched by keeping the temperature and pressure constants low, following which the oil yield was also found to be low. The yield significantly increased at relatively high pressure (>28 MPa) and medium to high temperature from 55 °C to 65 °C. The increasing effect of temperature and pressure was statistically significant (p < 0.05) on oil yield up to 65 °C. Above 65 °C, the oil yield gradually started to decrease with pressure, which is probably due to the reduction of CO2 density and solvation power of the SC-CO2. However, the effect of pressure changes (10 MPa to 40 MPa) on oil yield had a more noticeable and significant effect than that of temperature. Pressure elevation at a given temperature enhances the solubility of the oil in SC-CO2, which might improve the total oil yield [35]. Similar trends were also observed in the extraction of silkworm pupal oil using SC-CO2 [36,37]. Authors concluded that temperature has a negative effect on yield after a certain limit.

Bottom Line: Optimum points were observed within the variables of temperature from 35 °C to 80 °C, pressure from 10 MPa to 40 MPa, flow rate from 1 mL/min to 3 mL/min and soaking time from 1 h to 4 h.However, the extraction parameters were found to be optimized at temperature 57.5 °C, pressure 40 MPa, flow rate 2.0 mL/min and soaking time 2.5 h.At this optimized condition, the highest oil yields were found to be 67.0% (g oil/100 g sample on dry basis) in the viscera of catfish which was reasonable to the yields of 78.0% extracted using the Soxhlet method.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, International Islamic University, Kuantan Campus, Kuantan 25200, Pahang, Malaysia; E-Mail: juliana@iium.edu.my.

ABSTRACT
Fish oil was extracted from the viscera of African Catfish using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO(2)). A Central Composite Design of Response Surface methodology (RSM) was employed to optimize the SC-CO(2) extraction parameters. The oil yield (Y) as response variable was executed against the four independent variables, namely pressure, temperature, flow rate and soaking time. The oil yield varied with the linear, quadratic and interaction of pressure, temperature, flow rate and soaking time. Optimum points were observed within the variables of temperature from 35 °C to 80 °C, pressure from 10 MPa to 40 MPa, flow rate from 1 mL/min to 3 mL/min and soaking time from 1 h to 4 h. However, the extraction parameters were found to be optimized at temperature 57.5 °C, pressure 40 MPa, flow rate 2.0 mL/min and soaking time 2.5 h. At this optimized condition, the highest oil yields were found to be 67.0% (g oil/100 g sample on dry basis) in the viscera of catfish which was reasonable to the yields of 78.0% extracted using the Soxhlet method.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus