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Biocompatibility of genipin and glutaraldehyde cross-linked chitosan materials in the anterior chamber of the eye.

Lai JY - Int J Mol Sci (2012)

Bottom Line: The interleukin-6 expressions at mRNA level were also detected by quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction.As compared to the non-cross-linked counterparts, the GP-chi samples improved the preservation of corneal endothelial cell density and possessed better anti-inflammatory activities, indicating the benefit action of the GP cross-linker.In summary, the intracameral tissue response to the chemically modified chitosan materials strongly depends on the selection of cross-linking agents.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Biochemical and Biomedical Engineering, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan 33302, Taiwan; E-Mail: jylai@mail.cgu.edu.tw ; Tel.: +886-3-211-8800 (ext. 3598); ; Biomedical Engineering Research Center, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan 33302, Taiwan ; Molecular Medicine Research Center, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan 33302, Taiwan.

ABSTRACT
Chitosan is a naturally occurring cationic polysaccharide and has attracted much attention in the past decade as an important ophthalmic biomaterial. We recently demonstrated that the genipin (GP) cross-linked chitosan is compatible with human retinal pigment epithelial cells. The present work aims to further investigate the in vivo biocompatibility of GP-treated chitosan (GP-chi group) by adopting the anterior chamber of a rabbit eye model. The glutaraldehyde (GTA) cross-linked samples (GTA-chi group) were used for comparison. The 7-mm-diameter membrane implants made from either non-cross-linked chitosan or chemically modified materials with a cross-linking degree of around 80% were inserted in the ocular anterior chamber for 24 weeks and characterized by slit-lamp and specular microscopic examinations, intraocular pressure measurements, and corneal thickness measurements. The interleukin-6 expressions at mRNA level were also detected by quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Results of clinical observations showed that the overall ocular scores in the GTA-chi groups were relatively high. In contrast, the rabbits bearing GP-chi implants in the anterior chamber of the eye exhibited no signs of ocular inflammation. As compared to the non-cross-linked counterparts, the GP-chi samples improved the preservation of corneal endothelial cell density and possessed better anti-inflammatory activities, indicating the benefit action of the GP cross-linker. In summary, the intracameral tissue response to the chemically modified chitosan materials strongly depends on the selection of cross-linking agents.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Gene expression levels of interleukin-6 in rabbit corneal endothelium exposed to various chitosan implants for 24 weeks by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Normalization is done by using glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. Data in the experimental groups are percentages relative to that of Ctrl (sham-operated) groups. An asterisk indicates statistically significant differences (*p < 0.05; n = 6) as compared to the Ctrl (sham-operated) groups.
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f7-ijms-13-10970: Gene expression levels of interleukin-6 in rabbit corneal endothelium exposed to various chitosan implants for 24 weeks by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Normalization is done by using glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. Data in the experimental groups are percentages relative to that of Ctrl (sham-operated) groups. An asterisk indicates statistically significant differences (*p < 0.05; n = 6) as compared to the Ctrl (sham-operated) groups.

Mentions: Figure 7 shows the gene expression levels of IL-6 in rabbit corneal endothelium exposed to various chitosan implants for 24 weeks. In this study, by using quantitative real-time RT-PCR, the detected expression level for both genes in the Ctrl groups was defined as 100%. The IL-6 mRNA expression in the Chi, GTA-chi, and GP-chi groups was 117.2 ± 10.6, 371.8 ± 18.2, and 90.7% ± 12.0%, respectively, which demonstrated significant up-regulation of IL-6 in the animals bearing the GTA cross-linked materials.


Biocompatibility of genipin and glutaraldehyde cross-linked chitosan materials in the anterior chamber of the eye.

Lai JY - Int J Mol Sci (2012)

Gene expression levels of interleukin-6 in rabbit corneal endothelium exposed to various chitosan implants for 24 weeks by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Normalization is done by using glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. Data in the experimental groups are percentages relative to that of Ctrl (sham-operated) groups. An asterisk indicates statistically significant differences (*p < 0.05; n = 6) as compared to the Ctrl (sham-operated) groups.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3472724&req=5

f7-ijms-13-10970: Gene expression levels of interleukin-6 in rabbit corneal endothelium exposed to various chitosan implants for 24 weeks by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Normalization is done by using glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. Data in the experimental groups are percentages relative to that of Ctrl (sham-operated) groups. An asterisk indicates statistically significant differences (*p < 0.05; n = 6) as compared to the Ctrl (sham-operated) groups.
Mentions: Figure 7 shows the gene expression levels of IL-6 in rabbit corneal endothelium exposed to various chitosan implants for 24 weeks. In this study, by using quantitative real-time RT-PCR, the detected expression level for both genes in the Ctrl groups was defined as 100%. The IL-6 mRNA expression in the Chi, GTA-chi, and GP-chi groups was 117.2 ± 10.6, 371.8 ± 18.2, and 90.7% ± 12.0%, respectively, which demonstrated significant up-regulation of IL-6 in the animals bearing the GTA cross-linked materials.

Bottom Line: The interleukin-6 expressions at mRNA level were also detected by quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction.As compared to the non-cross-linked counterparts, the GP-chi samples improved the preservation of corneal endothelial cell density and possessed better anti-inflammatory activities, indicating the benefit action of the GP cross-linker.In summary, the intracameral tissue response to the chemically modified chitosan materials strongly depends on the selection of cross-linking agents.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Biochemical and Biomedical Engineering, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan 33302, Taiwan; E-Mail: jylai@mail.cgu.edu.tw ; Tel.: +886-3-211-8800 (ext. 3598); ; Biomedical Engineering Research Center, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan 33302, Taiwan ; Molecular Medicine Research Center, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan 33302, Taiwan.

ABSTRACT
Chitosan is a naturally occurring cationic polysaccharide and has attracted much attention in the past decade as an important ophthalmic biomaterial. We recently demonstrated that the genipin (GP) cross-linked chitosan is compatible with human retinal pigment epithelial cells. The present work aims to further investigate the in vivo biocompatibility of GP-treated chitosan (GP-chi group) by adopting the anterior chamber of a rabbit eye model. The glutaraldehyde (GTA) cross-linked samples (GTA-chi group) were used for comparison. The 7-mm-diameter membrane implants made from either non-cross-linked chitosan or chemically modified materials with a cross-linking degree of around 80% were inserted in the ocular anterior chamber for 24 weeks and characterized by slit-lamp and specular microscopic examinations, intraocular pressure measurements, and corneal thickness measurements. The interleukin-6 expressions at mRNA level were also detected by quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Results of clinical observations showed that the overall ocular scores in the GTA-chi groups were relatively high. In contrast, the rabbits bearing GP-chi implants in the anterior chamber of the eye exhibited no signs of ocular inflammation. As compared to the non-cross-linked counterparts, the GP-chi samples improved the preservation of corneal endothelial cell density and possessed better anti-inflammatory activities, indicating the benefit action of the GP cross-linker. In summary, the intracameral tissue response to the chemically modified chitosan materials strongly depends on the selection of cross-linking agents.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus