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Graphene nanoplatelets as novel reinforcement filler in poly(lactic acid)/epoxidized palm oil green nanocomposites: mechanical properties.

Chieng BW, Ibrahim NA, Yunus WM, Hussein MZ, Giita Silverajah VS - Int J Mol Sci (2012)

Bottom Line: PLA/EPO reinforced with xGnP resulted in an increase of up to 26.5% and 60.6% in the tensile strength and elongation at break of the nanocomposites respectively, compared to PLA/EPO blend.However, incorporation of xGnP has no effect on the flexural strength and modulus.Mechanical properties of PLA were greatly improved by the addition of a small amount of graphene nanoplatelets (<1 wt%).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, UPM Serdang, Selangor 43400, Malaysia; E-Mails: mzobir@science.upm.edu.my (M.Z.H.); vsgiita@gmail.com (V.S.G.S.).

ABSTRACT
Graphene nanoplatelet (xGnP) was investigated as a novel reinforcement filler in mechanical properties for poly(lactic acid) (PLA)/epoxidized palm oil (EPO) blend. PLA/EPO/xGnP green nanocomposites were successfully prepared by melt blending method. PLA/EPO reinforced with xGnP resulted in an increase of up to 26.5% and 60.6% in the tensile strength and elongation at break of the nanocomposites respectively, compared to PLA/EPO blend. XRD pattern showed the presence of peak around 26.5° in PLA/EPO nanocomposites which corresponds to characteristic peak of graphene nanoplatelets. However, incorporation of xGnP has no effect on the flexural strength and modulus. Impact strength of PLA/5 wt% EPO improved by 73.6% with the presence of 0.5 wt% xGnP loading. Mechanical properties of PLA were greatly improved by the addition of a small amount of graphene nanoplatelets (<1 wt%).

No MeSH data available.


Tensile strength of PLA/5EPO with various xGnP loadings.
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f5-ijms-13-10920: Tensile strength of PLA/5EPO with various xGnP loadings.

Mentions: Tensile properties of the PLA/EPO/xGnP nanocomposites containing various xGnP contents were examined at room temperature, as shown in Figure 4, which displays stress-strain curves of the nanocomposites. The effect of xGnP loading on tensile strength of PLA composites is depicted in Figure 5. The aim of incorporating xGnP into the polymer matrix is to improve its mechanical properties. The homogeneity of composites, orientation of the reinforcements and the strong interfacial interaction between xGnP and the polymer matrix should have a significant effect on the mechanical properties. Tensile strength of PLA/5EPO increase as xGnP loading increases and attains the highest value (41.07 MPa) at 0.3 wt% xGnP loading. At 0.1 wt% of graphene nanoplatelets loading, the reinforcement effect is limited due to the density of filler is not high enough to form a percolated network. As illustrated in Figure 6a, even complete randomization of the graphene nanoplatelets at very low concentration (0.1 wt%) will not result in graphene contact since their spheres of rotation will not intersect. For 0.3 wt% xGnP loading, the xGnP dispersion and distribution started to improve when the graphene nanoplatelets concentration becomes greater. Therefore, the tensile results imply better strength compared to 0.1 wt% xGnP loading. There is xGnP-xGnP and xGnP-matrix interaction as a result of the percolated network formed (Figure 6b). Further increase of xGnP loading, decreases the tensile strength. In the concentrated regime of xGnP (>0.5 wt%), reorientation cannot be achieved due to excluded volume interactions between nanoplatelets (Figure 6c). When the amount of xGnP reaches a critical content (0.3 wt%) and the distance between two xGnP is so small that they may be apt to stack together easily due to Van der Waals forces [29], thus it decreases in tensile strength.


Graphene nanoplatelets as novel reinforcement filler in poly(lactic acid)/epoxidized palm oil green nanocomposites: mechanical properties.

Chieng BW, Ibrahim NA, Yunus WM, Hussein MZ, Giita Silverajah VS - Int J Mol Sci (2012)

Tensile strength of PLA/5EPO with various xGnP loadings.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3472721&req=5

f5-ijms-13-10920: Tensile strength of PLA/5EPO with various xGnP loadings.
Mentions: Tensile properties of the PLA/EPO/xGnP nanocomposites containing various xGnP contents were examined at room temperature, as shown in Figure 4, which displays stress-strain curves of the nanocomposites. The effect of xGnP loading on tensile strength of PLA composites is depicted in Figure 5. The aim of incorporating xGnP into the polymer matrix is to improve its mechanical properties. The homogeneity of composites, orientation of the reinforcements and the strong interfacial interaction between xGnP and the polymer matrix should have a significant effect on the mechanical properties. Tensile strength of PLA/5EPO increase as xGnP loading increases and attains the highest value (41.07 MPa) at 0.3 wt% xGnP loading. At 0.1 wt% of graphene nanoplatelets loading, the reinforcement effect is limited due to the density of filler is not high enough to form a percolated network. As illustrated in Figure 6a, even complete randomization of the graphene nanoplatelets at very low concentration (0.1 wt%) will not result in graphene contact since their spheres of rotation will not intersect. For 0.3 wt% xGnP loading, the xGnP dispersion and distribution started to improve when the graphene nanoplatelets concentration becomes greater. Therefore, the tensile results imply better strength compared to 0.1 wt% xGnP loading. There is xGnP-xGnP and xGnP-matrix interaction as a result of the percolated network formed (Figure 6b). Further increase of xGnP loading, decreases the tensile strength. In the concentrated regime of xGnP (>0.5 wt%), reorientation cannot be achieved due to excluded volume interactions between nanoplatelets (Figure 6c). When the amount of xGnP reaches a critical content (0.3 wt%) and the distance between two xGnP is so small that they may be apt to stack together easily due to Van der Waals forces [29], thus it decreases in tensile strength.

Bottom Line: PLA/EPO reinforced with xGnP resulted in an increase of up to 26.5% and 60.6% in the tensile strength and elongation at break of the nanocomposites respectively, compared to PLA/EPO blend.However, incorporation of xGnP has no effect on the flexural strength and modulus.Mechanical properties of PLA were greatly improved by the addition of a small amount of graphene nanoplatelets (<1 wt%).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, UPM Serdang, Selangor 43400, Malaysia; E-Mails: mzobir@science.upm.edu.my (M.Z.H.); vsgiita@gmail.com (V.S.G.S.).

ABSTRACT
Graphene nanoplatelet (xGnP) was investigated as a novel reinforcement filler in mechanical properties for poly(lactic acid) (PLA)/epoxidized palm oil (EPO) blend. PLA/EPO/xGnP green nanocomposites were successfully prepared by melt blending method. PLA/EPO reinforced with xGnP resulted in an increase of up to 26.5% and 60.6% in the tensile strength and elongation at break of the nanocomposites respectively, compared to PLA/EPO blend. XRD pattern showed the presence of peak around 26.5° in PLA/EPO nanocomposites which corresponds to characteristic peak of graphene nanoplatelets. However, incorporation of xGnP has no effect on the flexural strength and modulus. Impact strength of PLA/5 wt% EPO improved by 73.6% with the presence of 0.5 wt% xGnP loading. Mechanical properties of PLA were greatly improved by the addition of a small amount of graphene nanoplatelets (<1 wt%).

No MeSH data available.