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Graphene nanoplatelets as novel reinforcement filler in poly(lactic acid)/epoxidized palm oil green nanocomposites: mechanical properties.

Chieng BW, Ibrahim NA, Yunus WM, Hussein MZ, Giita Silverajah VS - Int J Mol Sci (2012)

Bottom Line: PLA/EPO reinforced with xGnP resulted in an increase of up to 26.5% and 60.6% in the tensile strength and elongation at break of the nanocomposites respectively, compared to PLA/EPO blend.However, incorporation of xGnP has no effect on the flexural strength and modulus.Mechanical properties of PLA were greatly improved by the addition of a small amount of graphene nanoplatelets (<1 wt%).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, UPM Serdang, Selangor 43400, Malaysia; E-Mails: mzobir@science.upm.edu.my (M.Z.H.); vsgiita@gmail.com (V.S.G.S.).

ABSTRACT
Graphene nanoplatelet (xGnP) was investigated as a novel reinforcement filler in mechanical properties for poly(lactic acid) (PLA)/epoxidized palm oil (EPO) blend. PLA/EPO/xGnP green nanocomposites were successfully prepared by melt blending method. PLA/EPO reinforced with xGnP resulted in an increase of up to 26.5% and 60.6% in the tensile strength and elongation at break of the nanocomposites respectively, compared to PLA/EPO blend. XRD pattern showed the presence of peak around 26.5° in PLA/EPO nanocomposites which corresponds to characteristic peak of graphene nanoplatelets. However, incorporation of xGnP has no effect on the flexural strength and modulus. Impact strength of PLA/5 wt% EPO improved by 73.6% with the presence of 0.5 wt% xGnP loading. Mechanical properties of PLA were greatly improved by the addition of a small amount of graphene nanoplatelets (<1 wt%).

No MeSH data available.


SEM micrographs of PLA/5EPO with (a) 0.1 wt% xGnP; (b) 0.3 wt% xGnP and (c) 0.5 wt% xGnP.
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f12-ijms-13-10920: SEM micrographs of PLA/5EPO with (a) 0.1 wt% xGnP; (b) 0.3 wt% xGnP and (c) 0.5 wt% xGnP.

Mentions: The fracture surface of the nanocomposites was examined by scanning electron microscope to study the morphology of the surface. Figure 12 shows SEM micrographs of fracture surface of PLA/5EPO with various loadings of xGnP at magnification of 1000×. As shown in Figure 12, the dark background represents the PLA polymer matrix while bright areas represent xGnP sheets (as shown by the arrow) distributed in the polymer matrix. The conducting xGnP and the insulating polymer matrix resulted in the contrast between xGnP network and polymer matrix. As can be observed in Figure 12b, the PLA/5EPO/0.3 wt% xGnP nanocomposite is more homogenous and displays good uniformity. Good uniformity of composites indicates good degree of dispersion of the nanofiller and therefore results in better tensile strength as shown in Figure 5. PLA/5EPO/0.3 wt% xGnP also exhibit a strong stretching effect conforming to the high elongation at break during tensile testing. This agrees with the elongation at break result which gives the highest values (183.7%). Notice that in the micrographs, the voids are presented due to EPO dispersed on the PLA matrix (EPO rich phase). The presence of voids results in poor mechanical strength. However, with the addition of 0.3 wt% xGnP to PLA/5EPO, the blend showed good interaction resulting in higher mechanical properties. Nanocomposite with 0.1 and 0.5 wt% did not show improvement in the interaction, as can be observed through SEM micrographs.


Graphene nanoplatelets as novel reinforcement filler in poly(lactic acid)/epoxidized palm oil green nanocomposites: mechanical properties.

Chieng BW, Ibrahim NA, Yunus WM, Hussein MZ, Giita Silverajah VS - Int J Mol Sci (2012)

SEM micrographs of PLA/5EPO with (a) 0.1 wt% xGnP; (b) 0.3 wt% xGnP and (c) 0.5 wt% xGnP.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3472721&req=5

f12-ijms-13-10920: SEM micrographs of PLA/5EPO with (a) 0.1 wt% xGnP; (b) 0.3 wt% xGnP and (c) 0.5 wt% xGnP.
Mentions: The fracture surface of the nanocomposites was examined by scanning electron microscope to study the morphology of the surface. Figure 12 shows SEM micrographs of fracture surface of PLA/5EPO with various loadings of xGnP at magnification of 1000×. As shown in Figure 12, the dark background represents the PLA polymer matrix while bright areas represent xGnP sheets (as shown by the arrow) distributed in the polymer matrix. The conducting xGnP and the insulating polymer matrix resulted in the contrast between xGnP network and polymer matrix. As can be observed in Figure 12b, the PLA/5EPO/0.3 wt% xGnP nanocomposite is more homogenous and displays good uniformity. Good uniformity of composites indicates good degree of dispersion of the nanofiller and therefore results in better tensile strength as shown in Figure 5. PLA/5EPO/0.3 wt% xGnP also exhibit a strong stretching effect conforming to the high elongation at break during tensile testing. This agrees with the elongation at break result which gives the highest values (183.7%). Notice that in the micrographs, the voids are presented due to EPO dispersed on the PLA matrix (EPO rich phase). The presence of voids results in poor mechanical strength. However, with the addition of 0.3 wt% xGnP to PLA/5EPO, the blend showed good interaction resulting in higher mechanical properties. Nanocomposite with 0.1 and 0.5 wt% did not show improvement in the interaction, as can be observed through SEM micrographs.

Bottom Line: PLA/EPO reinforced with xGnP resulted in an increase of up to 26.5% and 60.6% in the tensile strength and elongation at break of the nanocomposites respectively, compared to PLA/EPO blend.However, incorporation of xGnP has no effect on the flexural strength and modulus.Mechanical properties of PLA were greatly improved by the addition of a small amount of graphene nanoplatelets (<1 wt%).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, UPM Serdang, Selangor 43400, Malaysia; E-Mails: mzobir@science.upm.edu.my (M.Z.H.); vsgiita@gmail.com (V.S.G.S.).

ABSTRACT
Graphene nanoplatelet (xGnP) was investigated as a novel reinforcement filler in mechanical properties for poly(lactic acid) (PLA)/epoxidized palm oil (EPO) blend. PLA/EPO/xGnP green nanocomposites were successfully prepared by melt blending method. PLA/EPO reinforced with xGnP resulted in an increase of up to 26.5% and 60.6% in the tensile strength and elongation at break of the nanocomposites respectively, compared to PLA/EPO blend. XRD pattern showed the presence of peak around 26.5° in PLA/EPO nanocomposites which corresponds to characteristic peak of graphene nanoplatelets. However, incorporation of xGnP has no effect on the flexural strength and modulus. Impact strength of PLA/5 wt% EPO improved by 73.6% with the presence of 0.5 wt% xGnP loading. Mechanical properties of PLA were greatly improved by the addition of a small amount of graphene nanoplatelets (<1 wt%).

No MeSH data available.