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Controlled-release approaches towards the chemotherapy of tuberculosis.

Saifullah B, Hussein MZ, Hussein Al Ali SH - Int J Nanomedicine (2012)

Bottom Line: For multidrug-resistant TB, patients must take second-line anti-TB drugs for 18-24 months and many adverse effects are associated with these drugs.DDSs reduce the adverse effects of drugs and their dosing frequency as well as shorten the treatment period, and hence improve patient compliance.In addition, targeted delivery systems may be useful in dealing with extensively drug-resistant TB because many side effects are associated with the drugs used to cure the disease.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

ABSTRACT
Tuberculosis (TB), caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is notorious for its lethality to humans. Despite technological advances, the tubercle bacillus continues to threaten humans. According to the World Health Organization's 2011 global report on TB, 8.8 million cases of TB were reported in 2010, with a loss of 1.7 million human lives. As drug-susceptible TB requires long-term treatment of between 6 and 9 months, patient noncompliance remains the most important reason for treatment failure. For multidrug-resistant TB, patients must take second-line anti-TB drugs for 18-24 months and many adverse effects are associated with these drugs. Drug-delivery systems (DDSs) seem to be the most promising option for advancement in the treatment of TB. DDSs reduce the adverse effects of drugs and their dosing frequency as well as shorten the treatment period, and hence improve patient compliance. Further advantages of these systems are that they target the disease area, release the drugs in a sustained manner, and are biocompatible. In addition, targeted delivery systems may be useful in dealing with extensively drug-resistant TB because many side effects are associated with the drugs used to cure the disease. In this paper, we discuss the DDSs developed for the targeted and slow delivery of anti-TB drugs and their possible advantages and disadvantages.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Top: Schematic representation of rifampin (Rif) (red circles) loaded into glucan particles (GPs) and sealed with a hydrogel. Bottom: bright-field microscope images of an empty GP (left) and a GP-Rif sample (right).Reproduced from Soto E, Kim YS, Lee J, Kornfeld H, Ostroff G. Glucan particle encapsulated rifampicin for targeted delivery to macrophages. Polymers. 2010; 2(4):681–689.44
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f5-ijn-7-5451: Top: Schematic representation of rifampin (Rif) (red circles) loaded into glucan particles (GPs) and sealed with a hydrogel. Bottom: bright-field microscope images of an empty GP (left) and a GP-Rif sample (right).Reproduced from Soto E, Kim YS, Lee J, Kornfeld H, Ostroff G. Glucan particle encapsulated rifampicin for targeted delivery to macrophages. Polymers. 2010; 2(4):681–689.44

Mentions: The use of GPs for delivery of macromolecules, such as DNA, siRNA, and proteins, has been successfully established both in vitro and in vivo.45,46 Soto et al have successfully encapsulated the TB antibiotic rifampin in glucan particles by making use of an alginate or chitosan hydrogel to close the GP pores and prolong the drug release.44 The void holes of the GPs permit the efficient absorption and encapsulation of drugs. They have reported the sustained release for periods of 24–72 hours in vitro and have found that the formulation diminishes the intracellular TB count in infected bone marrow-derived macrophages. The decline in colony-forming units in the infected macrophages at sub-minimum inhibitory concentration levels of antibiotic demonstrates the significance of the targeted rifampin release and potentially lessens adverse affects on healthy tissues. The amount of rifampin released in the GP formulations was below the free rifampin minimal inhibitory concentration, demonstrating that GP-targeted rifampin delivery to macrophages improves rifampin’s therapeutic effects.44Figure 5 shows microscopic images of empty GPs and GP-rifampin samples.


Controlled-release approaches towards the chemotherapy of tuberculosis.

Saifullah B, Hussein MZ, Hussein Al Ali SH - Int J Nanomedicine (2012)

Top: Schematic representation of rifampin (Rif) (red circles) loaded into glucan particles (GPs) and sealed with a hydrogel. Bottom: bright-field microscope images of an empty GP (left) and a GP-Rif sample (right).Reproduced from Soto E, Kim YS, Lee J, Kornfeld H, Ostroff G. Glucan particle encapsulated rifampicin for targeted delivery to macrophages. Polymers. 2010; 2(4):681–689.44
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3472697&req=5

f5-ijn-7-5451: Top: Schematic representation of rifampin (Rif) (red circles) loaded into glucan particles (GPs) and sealed with a hydrogel. Bottom: bright-field microscope images of an empty GP (left) and a GP-Rif sample (right).Reproduced from Soto E, Kim YS, Lee J, Kornfeld H, Ostroff G. Glucan particle encapsulated rifampicin for targeted delivery to macrophages. Polymers. 2010; 2(4):681–689.44
Mentions: The use of GPs for delivery of macromolecules, such as DNA, siRNA, and proteins, has been successfully established both in vitro and in vivo.45,46 Soto et al have successfully encapsulated the TB antibiotic rifampin in glucan particles by making use of an alginate or chitosan hydrogel to close the GP pores and prolong the drug release.44 The void holes of the GPs permit the efficient absorption and encapsulation of drugs. They have reported the sustained release for periods of 24–72 hours in vitro and have found that the formulation diminishes the intracellular TB count in infected bone marrow-derived macrophages. The decline in colony-forming units in the infected macrophages at sub-minimum inhibitory concentration levels of antibiotic demonstrates the significance of the targeted rifampin release and potentially lessens adverse affects on healthy tissues. The amount of rifampin released in the GP formulations was below the free rifampin minimal inhibitory concentration, demonstrating that GP-targeted rifampin delivery to macrophages improves rifampin’s therapeutic effects.44Figure 5 shows microscopic images of empty GPs and GP-rifampin samples.

Bottom Line: For multidrug-resistant TB, patients must take second-line anti-TB drugs for 18-24 months and many adverse effects are associated with these drugs.DDSs reduce the adverse effects of drugs and their dosing frequency as well as shorten the treatment period, and hence improve patient compliance.In addition, targeted delivery systems may be useful in dealing with extensively drug-resistant TB because many side effects are associated with the drugs used to cure the disease.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

ABSTRACT
Tuberculosis (TB), caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is notorious for its lethality to humans. Despite technological advances, the tubercle bacillus continues to threaten humans. According to the World Health Organization's 2011 global report on TB, 8.8 million cases of TB were reported in 2010, with a loss of 1.7 million human lives. As drug-susceptible TB requires long-term treatment of between 6 and 9 months, patient noncompliance remains the most important reason for treatment failure. For multidrug-resistant TB, patients must take second-line anti-TB drugs for 18-24 months and many adverse effects are associated with these drugs. Drug-delivery systems (DDSs) seem to be the most promising option for advancement in the treatment of TB. DDSs reduce the adverse effects of drugs and their dosing frequency as well as shorten the treatment period, and hence improve patient compliance. Further advantages of these systems are that they target the disease area, release the drugs in a sustained manner, and are biocompatible. In addition, targeted delivery systems may be useful in dealing with extensively drug-resistant TB because many side effects are associated with the drugs used to cure the disease. In this paper, we discuss the DDSs developed for the targeted and slow delivery of anti-TB drugs and their possible advantages and disadvantages.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus