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Controlled-release approaches towards the chemotherapy of tuberculosis.

Saifullah B, Hussein MZ, Hussein Al Ali SH - Int J Nanomedicine (2012)

Bottom Line: For multidrug-resistant TB, patients must take second-line anti-TB drugs for 18-24 months and many adverse effects are associated with these drugs.DDSs reduce the adverse effects of drugs and their dosing frequency as well as shorten the treatment period, and hence improve patient compliance.In addition, targeted delivery systems may be useful in dealing with extensively drug-resistant TB because many side effects are associated with the drugs used to cure the disease.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

ABSTRACT
Tuberculosis (TB), caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is notorious for its lethality to humans. Despite technological advances, the tubercle bacillus continues to threaten humans. According to the World Health Organization's 2011 global report on TB, 8.8 million cases of TB were reported in 2010, with a loss of 1.7 million human lives. As drug-susceptible TB requires long-term treatment of between 6 and 9 months, patient noncompliance remains the most important reason for treatment failure. For multidrug-resistant TB, patients must take second-line anti-TB drugs for 18-24 months and many adverse effects are associated with these drugs. Drug-delivery systems (DDSs) seem to be the most promising option for advancement in the treatment of TB. DDSs reduce the adverse effects of drugs and their dosing frequency as well as shorten the treatment period, and hence improve patient compliance. Further advantages of these systems are that they target the disease area, release the drugs in a sustained manner, and are biocompatible. In addition, targeted delivery systems may be useful in dealing with extensively drug-resistant TB because many side effects are associated with the drugs used to cure the disease. In this paper, we discuss the DDSs developed for the targeted and slow delivery of anti-TB drugs and their possible advantages and disadvantages.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Important factors of the survival mechanisms involved in the phagosome maturation arrest of Mycobacterium tuberculosis inside the macrophages. Meena LS, Rajani. Survival mechanisms of pathogenic Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv. FEBS J. 2010;277(11):2416–2427. Reproduced with permission from John Wiley and Sons.8Abbreviation: TACO, tryptophan aspartate-containing coat.
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f2-ijn-7-5451: Important factors of the survival mechanisms involved in the phagosome maturation arrest of Mycobacterium tuberculosis inside the macrophages. Meena LS, Rajani. Survival mechanisms of pathogenic Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv. FEBS J. 2010;277(11):2416–2427. Reproduced with permission from John Wiley and Sons.8Abbreviation: TACO, tryptophan aspartate-containing coat.

Mentions: Bacteria of the Mycobacterium genus have evolved several mechanisms to avoid the antagonistic surroundings of the macrophages (the chief host units for the TB).7 The mechanisms employed by the TB are thoroughly reviewed by Meena and Rajani.8 Four of the mechanisms – inhibition of phagosome–lysosome fusion, inhibition of phagosomal acidification, protection against oxidative radicals, and the tryptophan aspartate-containing coat (TACO) protein on the phagosome wall – are outlined in Figure 2.8


Controlled-release approaches towards the chemotherapy of tuberculosis.

Saifullah B, Hussein MZ, Hussein Al Ali SH - Int J Nanomedicine (2012)

Important factors of the survival mechanisms involved in the phagosome maturation arrest of Mycobacterium tuberculosis inside the macrophages. Meena LS, Rajani. Survival mechanisms of pathogenic Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv. FEBS J. 2010;277(11):2416–2427. Reproduced with permission from John Wiley and Sons.8Abbreviation: TACO, tryptophan aspartate-containing coat.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3472697&req=5

f2-ijn-7-5451: Important factors of the survival mechanisms involved in the phagosome maturation arrest of Mycobacterium tuberculosis inside the macrophages. Meena LS, Rajani. Survival mechanisms of pathogenic Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv. FEBS J. 2010;277(11):2416–2427. Reproduced with permission from John Wiley and Sons.8Abbreviation: TACO, tryptophan aspartate-containing coat.
Mentions: Bacteria of the Mycobacterium genus have evolved several mechanisms to avoid the antagonistic surroundings of the macrophages (the chief host units for the TB).7 The mechanisms employed by the TB are thoroughly reviewed by Meena and Rajani.8 Four of the mechanisms – inhibition of phagosome–lysosome fusion, inhibition of phagosomal acidification, protection against oxidative radicals, and the tryptophan aspartate-containing coat (TACO) protein on the phagosome wall – are outlined in Figure 2.8

Bottom Line: For multidrug-resistant TB, patients must take second-line anti-TB drugs for 18-24 months and many adverse effects are associated with these drugs.DDSs reduce the adverse effects of drugs and their dosing frequency as well as shorten the treatment period, and hence improve patient compliance.In addition, targeted delivery systems may be useful in dealing with extensively drug-resistant TB because many side effects are associated with the drugs used to cure the disease.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

ABSTRACT
Tuberculosis (TB), caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is notorious for its lethality to humans. Despite technological advances, the tubercle bacillus continues to threaten humans. According to the World Health Organization's 2011 global report on TB, 8.8 million cases of TB were reported in 2010, with a loss of 1.7 million human lives. As drug-susceptible TB requires long-term treatment of between 6 and 9 months, patient noncompliance remains the most important reason for treatment failure. For multidrug-resistant TB, patients must take second-line anti-TB drugs for 18-24 months and many adverse effects are associated with these drugs. Drug-delivery systems (DDSs) seem to be the most promising option for advancement in the treatment of TB. DDSs reduce the adverse effects of drugs and their dosing frequency as well as shorten the treatment period, and hence improve patient compliance. Further advantages of these systems are that they target the disease area, release the drugs in a sustained manner, and are biocompatible. In addition, targeted delivery systems may be useful in dealing with extensively drug-resistant TB because many side effects are associated with the drugs used to cure the disease. In this paper, we discuss the DDSs developed for the targeted and slow delivery of anti-TB drugs and their possible advantages and disadvantages.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus