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Controlled-release approaches towards the chemotherapy of tuberculosis.

Saifullah B, Hussein MZ, Hussein Al Ali SH - Int J Nanomedicine (2012)

Bottom Line: For multidrug-resistant TB, patients must take second-line anti-TB drugs for 18-24 months and many adverse effects are associated with these drugs.DDSs reduce the adverse effects of drugs and their dosing frequency as well as shorten the treatment period, and hence improve patient compliance.In addition, targeted delivery systems may be useful in dealing with extensively drug-resistant TB because many side effects are associated with the drugs used to cure the disease.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

ABSTRACT
Tuberculosis (TB), caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is notorious for its lethality to humans. Despite technological advances, the tubercle bacillus continues to threaten humans. According to the World Health Organization's 2011 global report on TB, 8.8 million cases of TB were reported in 2010, with a loss of 1.7 million human lives. As drug-susceptible TB requires long-term treatment of between 6 and 9 months, patient noncompliance remains the most important reason for treatment failure. For multidrug-resistant TB, patients must take second-line anti-TB drugs for 18-24 months and many adverse effects are associated with these drugs. Drug-delivery systems (DDSs) seem to be the most promising option for advancement in the treatment of TB. DDSs reduce the adverse effects of drugs and their dosing frequency as well as shorten the treatment period, and hence improve patient compliance. Further advantages of these systems are that they target the disease area, release the drugs in a sustained manner, and are biocompatible. In addition, targeted delivery systems may be useful in dealing with extensively drug-resistant TB because many side effects are associated with the drugs used to cure the disease. In this paper, we discuss the DDSs developed for the targeted and slow delivery of anti-TB drugs and their possible advantages and disadvantages.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Detailed structure of a macrophage showing a typical process of phagocytosis.Meena LS, Rajani. Survival mechanisms of pathogenic Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv. FEBS J. 2010;277(11):2416–2427. Reproduced with permission from John Wiley and Sons.8
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f1-ijn-7-5451: Detailed structure of a macrophage showing a typical process of phagocytosis.Meena LS, Rajani. Survival mechanisms of pathogenic Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv. FEBS J. 2010;277(11):2416–2427. Reproduced with permission from John Wiley and Sons.8

Mentions: Macrophages (white blood cells) are the human defense against pathogens. Macrophages work equally well in unspecified action (innate immunity) and in assisting in the initiation of particular resistive action (adaptive immunity) of vertebrate species. Their mode of action is to take in and excrete leftover cells and pathogens after destroying them; they can work both as standing or moving units. Further, macrophages signal lymphocytes and other defensive units to take action against pathogens. Phagocyte units are specialized in assailing alien materials, contagious pathogens, and cancerous cells through a destructive mode of action.6Figure 1 shows the detailed structure of a macrophage and a typical phagocytosis process.


Controlled-release approaches towards the chemotherapy of tuberculosis.

Saifullah B, Hussein MZ, Hussein Al Ali SH - Int J Nanomedicine (2012)

Detailed structure of a macrophage showing a typical process of phagocytosis.Meena LS, Rajani. Survival mechanisms of pathogenic Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv. FEBS J. 2010;277(11):2416–2427. Reproduced with permission from John Wiley and Sons.8
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3472697&req=5

f1-ijn-7-5451: Detailed structure of a macrophage showing a typical process of phagocytosis.Meena LS, Rajani. Survival mechanisms of pathogenic Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv. FEBS J. 2010;277(11):2416–2427. Reproduced with permission from John Wiley and Sons.8
Mentions: Macrophages (white blood cells) are the human defense against pathogens. Macrophages work equally well in unspecified action (innate immunity) and in assisting in the initiation of particular resistive action (adaptive immunity) of vertebrate species. Their mode of action is to take in and excrete leftover cells and pathogens after destroying them; they can work both as standing or moving units. Further, macrophages signal lymphocytes and other defensive units to take action against pathogens. Phagocyte units are specialized in assailing alien materials, contagious pathogens, and cancerous cells through a destructive mode of action.6Figure 1 shows the detailed structure of a macrophage and a typical phagocytosis process.

Bottom Line: For multidrug-resistant TB, patients must take second-line anti-TB drugs for 18-24 months and many adverse effects are associated with these drugs.DDSs reduce the adverse effects of drugs and their dosing frequency as well as shorten the treatment period, and hence improve patient compliance.In addition, targeted delivery systems may be useful in dealing with extensively drug-resistant TB because many side effects are associated with the drugs used to cure the disease.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

ABSTRACT
Tuberculosis (TB), caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is notorious for its lethality to humans. Despite technological advances, the tubercle bacillus continues to threaten humans. According to the World Health Organization's 2011 global report on TB, 8.8 million cases of TB were reported in 2010, with a loss of 1.7 million human lives. As drug-susceptible TB requires long-term treatment of between 6 and 9 months, patient noncompliance remains the most important reason for treatment failure. For multidrug-resistant TB, patients must take second-line anti-TB drugs for 18-24 months and many adverse effects are associated with these drugs. Drug-delivery systems (DDSs) seem to be the most promising option for advancement in the treatment of TB. DDSs reduce the adverse effects of drugs and their dosing frequency as well as shorten the treatment period, and hence improve patient compliance. Further advantages of these systems are that they target the disease area, release the drugs in a sustained manner, and are biocompatible. In addition, targeted delivery systems may be useful in dealing with extensively drug-resistant TB because many side effects are associated with the drugs used to cure the disease. In this paper, we discuss the DDSs developed for the targeted and slow delivery of anti-TB drugs and their possible advantages and disadvantages.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus