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The association between irregular menstruations and acne with asthma and atopy phenotypes.

Galobardes B, Patel S, Henderson J, Jeffreys M, Smith GD - Am. J. Epidemiol. (2012)

Bottom Line: Finding consistent associations in a cohort that has experienced different life-course exposures and has different confounding structure can help to identify causal associations.In the Glasgow Alumni Cohort, irregular periods were associated with atopic asthma (multinomial odds ratio (MOR) = 2.79, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.33, 5.83) and atopy alone (MOR = 1.40, 95% CI: 1.06, 1.84) but not with nonatopic asthma (MOR = 1.02, 95% CI: 0.45, 2.30), compared with students reporting no asthma and no atopy.In summary, the authors found evidence for a potentially etiologic role of irregular menstruations with some specific asthma phenotypes, namely, atopic asthma and atopy, but not with nonatopic asthma.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Social and Community Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK. bruna.galobardes@bristol.ac.uk

ABSTRACT
Earlier menarche and irregular periods, among other markers of sex-hormone levels, have been associated with a higher risk of asthma and allergic diseases. This has suggested an etiologic role of sex hormones in the development of these conditions. The authors investigated the association of age at menarche, irregular periods, duration of menstruation, and acne with reported medical history of asthma and/or atopy (hay fever and/or eczema/urticaria) in a historical cohort of students born before the rise in asthma prevalence in the United Kingdom and attending university in 1948-1968. Finding consistent associations in a cohort that has experienced different life-course exposures and has different confounding structure can help to identify causal associations. In the Glasgow Alumni Cohort, irregular periods were associated with atopic asthma (multinomial odds ratio (MOR) = 2.79, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.33, 5.83) and atopy alone (MOR = 1.40, 95% CI: 1.06, 1.84) but not with nonatopic asthma (MOR = 1.02, 95% CI: 0.45, 2.30), compared with students reporting no asthma and no atopy. The authors found no association with acne, a marker of high testosterone levels, that they hypothesized could point to polycystic ovary syndrome underpinning these associations. In summary, the authors found evidence for a potentially etiologic role of irregular menstruations with some specific asthma phenotypes, namely, atopic asthma and atopy, but not with nonatopic asthma.

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Proportion of male and female students reporting asthma or atopy (hay fever and/or eczema/urticaria), Glasgow Alumni Cohort Study, 1948–1968. P < 0.001 for gender differences in nonatopic asthma and atopy alone.
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KWS161F1: Proportion of male and female students reporting asthma or atopy (hay fever and/or eczema/urticaria), Glasgow Alumni Cohort Study, 1948–1968. P < 0.001 for gender differences in nonatopic asthma and atopy alone.

Mentions: More male students reported nonatopic asthma than females, but there were no differences with atopic asthma (Figure 1). Female students reported atopy alone more frequently than male students. Table 1 shows descriptive characteristics of this population of university students. More than 50% of both male and female students had fathers from a higher social class (class I or II) and were firstborns. The average age at menarche was 13.0 (standard deviation, 1.2) years with an average duration of 4.9 (standard deviation, 1.0) days; 16.4% of female students reported irregular menstruations. These were more common among students reporting later age at menarche. Similar proportions of both female (17.3%) and male (18.0%) students reported previous history of acne. Later age at menarche was associated with atopic asthma; irregular menstruation was associated with atopic asthma and atopy alone but not with nonatopic asthma (Table 2). The odds of atopic asthma for these markers were attenuated when both were introduced simultaneously in the model (multinomial odds ratio (age at menarche) = 1.3, 95% confidence interval: 0.9, 1.7; multinomial odds ratio (irregular menstruation) = 2.5, 95% confidence interval: 1.2, 5.2). Female students with acne had lower odds of atopic asthma, and male students with acne had lower odds of atopy alone but, in both cases, chance could not be ruled out as wide confidence intervals included the . Finally, there were no associations between markers of sex-hormone levels and chest infections in either male or female students.Figure 1.


The association between irregular menstruations and acne with asthma and atopy phenotypes.

Galobardes B, Patel S, Henderson J, Jeffreys M, Smith GD - Am. J. Epidemiol. (2012)

Proportion of male and female students reporting asthma or atopy (hay fever and/or eczema/urticaria), Glasgow Alumni Cohort Study, 1948–1968. P < 0.001 for gender differences in nonatopic asthma and atopy alone.
© Copyright Policy - creative-commons
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3472614&req=5

KWS161F1: Proportion of male and female students reporting asthma or atopy (hay fever and/or eczema/urticaria), Glasgow Alumni Cohort Study, 1948–1968. P < 0.001 for gender differences in nonatopic asthma and atopy alone.
Mentions: More male students reported nonatopic asthma than females, but there were no differences with atopic asthma (Figure 1). Female students reported atopy alone more frequently than male students. Table 1 shows descriptive characteristics of this population of university students. More than 50% of both male and female students had fathers from a higher social class (class I or II) and were firstborns. The average age at menarche was 13.0 (standard deviation, 1.2) years with an average duration of 4.9 (standard deviation, 1.0) days; 16.4% of female students reported irregular menstruations. These were more common among students reporting later age at menarche. Similar proportions of both female (17.3%) and male (18.0%) students reported previous history of acne. Later age at menarche was associated with atopic asthma; irregular menstruation was associated with atopic asthma and atopy alone but not with nonatopic asthma (Table 2). The odds of atopic asthma for these markers were attenuated when both were introduced simultaneously in the model (multinomial odds ratio (age at menarche) = 1.3, 95% confidence interval: 0.9, 1.7; multinomial odds ratio (irregular menstruation) = 2.5, 95% confidence interval: 1.2, 5.2). Female students with acne had lower odds of atopic asthma, and male students with acne had lower odds of atopy alone but, in both cases, chance could not be ruled out as wide confidence intervals included the . Finally, there were no associations between markers of sex-hormone levels and chest infections in either male or female students.Figure 1.

Bottom Line: Finding consistent associations in a cohort that has experienced different life-course exposures and has different confounding structure can help to identify causal associations.In the Glasgow Alumni Cohort, irregular periods were associated with atopic asthma (multinomial odds ratio (MOR) = 2.79, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.33, 5.83) and atopy alone (MOR = 1.40, 95% CI: 1.06, 1.84) but not with nonatopic asthma (MOR = 1.02, 95% CI: 0.45, 2.30), compared with students reporting no asthma and no atopy.In summary, the authors found evidence for a potentially etiologic role of irregular menstruations with some specific asthma phenotypes, namely, atopic asthma and atopy, but not with nonatopic asthma.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Social and Community Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK. bruna.galobardes@bristol.ac.uk

ABSTRACT
Earlier menarche and irregular periods, among other markers of sex-hormone levels, have been associated with a higher risk of asthma and allergic diseases. This has suggested an etiologic role of sex hormones in the development of these conditions. The authors investigated the association of age at menarche, irregular periods, duration of menstruation, and acne with reported medical history of asthma and/or atopy (hay fever and/or eczema/urticaria) in a historical cohort of students born before the rise in asthma prevalence in the United Kingdom and attending university in 1948-1968. Finding consistent associations in a cohort that has experienced different life-course exposures and has different confounding structure can help to identify causal associations. In the Glasgow Alumni Cohort, irregular periods were associated with atopic asthma (multinomial odds ratio (MOR) = 2.79, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.33, 5.83) and atopy alone (MOR = 1.40, 95% CI: 1.06, 1.84) but not with nonatopic asthma (MOR = 1.02, 95% CI: 0.45, 2.30), compared with students reporting no asthma and no atopy. The authors found no association with acne, a marker of high testosterone levels, that they hypothesized could point to polycystic ovary syndrome underpinning these associations. In summary, the authors found evidence for a potentially etiologic role of irregular menstruations with some specific asthma phenotypes, namely, atopic asthma and atopy, but not with nonatopic asthma.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus