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Striatal signaling: two decades of progress.

Valjent E - Front Neuroanat (2012)

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institut de Génomique Fonctionnelle Montpellier, France ; Inserm U661 Montpellier, France ; CNRS UMR 5203 Montpellier, France ; Université Montpellier I & II France.

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The striatum and its ventral extension the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) are the main inputs structure of the basal ganglia circuit (Figure 1)... The authors review both the canonical and non-canonical D1R signaling cascade that coupled to Gαolf/adenylyl cyclase/PKA signaling and to Gq/phospholipase C or Src family kinase, respectively... Although, it is commonly accepted that D1R and D2R are preferentially expressed in striatonigral and striatopallidal MSNs, respectively, the authors put forward the hypothesis that MSNs co-expressing both receptors display unique signaling properties supporting the existence of a “novel third pathway”... The authors also highlight how presynaptic A2aR-A1R heteromers can impact on striatal signaling... After a brief overview of the major G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and their downstream effectors, Xie and Martemyanov discuss the progress made in understanding the roles of RGS proteins in controlling striatal G-protein signaling... After a rapid update on the role played by dopamine receptors in drug addiction, Philibin et al. perform an in-depth review of intracellular signaling cascades, involving specific kinases and phosphatases affected by cAMP and Ca that modulate neuroplasticity to affect behavioral outcome... Glutamate receptors cooperate closely with dopamine to regulate striatal signaling... The article by Durieux et al. also deals with the development of new models and techniques allowing the selective targeting of striatal MSNs and interneurons... Although these approaches represent invaluable tools, the authors point out the need of an extensive characterization to avoid overstated conclusions... After a brief overview of the clinical aspects, genetics, and neuropathology, Roze et al. summarize our current knowledge on the molecular mechanisms underlying Huntington's disease... Changes in axonal transport and synaptic dysfunction have been discussed, as are transcriptional dysregulation observed at the striatal level... Finally, the last article by Crittenden and Graybiel provides a comprehensive review on the current state of knowledge of the details of striosome-matrix compartimentalization on the striatum and alterations in various disease states... I am grateful for the enthusiasm and willingness shown by so many colleagues in the field of striatal signaling to contribute an article in this Special Issue... Some of the contributors also served as expert reviewers for articles... In addition, I would like to thank external reviewers for their valuable criticisms and suggestions that contributed to the success of this Special Issue.

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Single confocal image showing DARPP-32 immunoreactivity (red) and EGFP fluorescence (cyan) in Drd2-EGFP BAC transgenic mice. DARPP-32 allows the identification of all striatal medium-sized spiny neurons (MSNs) while EGFP labels striatopallidal MSNs and large aspiny cholinergic interneurons. Picture by E. Valjent.
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Figure 1: Single confocal image showing DARPP-32 immunoreactivity (red) and EGFP fluorescence (cyan) in Drd2-EGFP BAC transgenic mice. DARPP-32 allows the identification of all striatal medium-sized spiny neurons (MSNs) while EGFP labels striatopallidal MSNs and large aspiny cholinergic interneurons. Picture by E. Valjent.

Mentions: The striatum and its ventral extension the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) are the main inputs structure of the basal ganglia circuit (Figure 1). While the striatum appears to be essential for the selection and initiation of actions and for the learning of habits and skills, the NAcc seems to be more involved in motivation and reward. Interestingly, dysfunctional plasticity of these structures has been associated with prominent neurological and psychiatric disorders such as Parkinson's disease, obsessive-compulsive disorder, Tourette's syndrome, and drug addiction.


Striatal signaling: two decades of progress.

Valjent E - Front Neuroanat (2012)

Single confocal image showing DARPP-32 immunoreactivity (red) and EGFP fluorescence (cyan) in Drd2-EGFP BAC transgenic mice. DARPP-32 allows the identification of all striatal medium-sized spiny neurons (MSNs) while EGFP labels striatopallidal MSNs and large aspiny cholinergic interneurons. Picture by E. Valjent.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3472566&req=5

Figure 1: Single confocal image showing DARPP-32 immunoreactivity (red) and EGFP fluorescence (cyan) in Drd2-EGFP BAC transgenic mice. DARPP-32 allows the identification of all striatal medium-sized spiny neurons (MSNs) while EGFP labels striatopallidal MSNs and large aspiny cholinergic interneurons. Picture by E. Valjent.
Mentions: The striatum and its ventral extension the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) are the main inputs structure of the basal ganglia circuit (Figure 1). While the striatum appears to be essential for the selection and initiation of actions and for the learning of habits and skills, the NAcc seems to be more involved in motivation and reward. Interestingly, dysfunctional plasticity of these structures has been associated with prominent neurological and psychiatric disorders such as Parkinson's disease, obsessive-compulsive disorder, Tourette's syndrome, and drug addiction.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institut de Génomique Fonctionnelle Montpellier, France ; Inserm U661 Montpellier, France ; CNRS UMR 5203 Montpellier, France ; Université Montpellier I & II France.

AUTOMATICALLY GENERATED EXCERPT
Please rate it.

The striatum and its ventral extension the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) are the main inputs structure of the basal ganglia circuit (Figure 1)... The authors review both the canonical and non-canonical D1R signaling cascade that coupled to Gαolf/adenylyl cyclase/PKA signaling and to Gq/phospholipase C or Src family kinase, respectively... Although, it is commonly accepted that D1R and D2R are preferentially expressed in striatonigral and striatopallidal MSNs, respectively, the authors put forward the hypothesis that MSNs co-expressing both receptors display unique signaling properties supporting the existence of a “novel third pathway”... The authors also highlight how presynaptic A2aR-A1R heteromers can impact on striatal signaling... After a brief overview of the major G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and their downstream effectors, Xie and Martemyanov discuss the progress made in understanding the roles of RGS proteins in controlling striatal G-protein signaling... After a rapid update on the role played by dopamine receptors in drug addiction, Philibin et al. perform an in-depth review of intracellular signaling cascades, involving specific kinases and phosphatases affected by cAMP and Ca that modulate neuroplasticity to affect behavioral outcome... Glutamate receptors cooperate closely with dopamine to regulate striatal signaling... The article by Durieux et al. also deals with the development of new models and techniques allowing the selective targeting of striatal MSNs and interneurons... Although these approaches represent invaluable tools, the authors point out the need of an extensive characterization to avoid overstated conclusions... After a brief overview of the clinical aspects, genetics, and neuropathology, Roze et al. summarize our current knowledge on the molecular mechanisms underlying Huntington's disease... Changes in axonal transport and synaptic dysfunction have been discussed, as are transcriptional dysregulation observed at the striatal level... Finally, the last article by Crittenden and Graybiel provides a comprehensive review on the current state of knowledge of the details of striosome-matrix compartimentalization on the striatum and alterations in various disease states... I am grateful for the enthusiasm and willingness shown by so many colleagues in the field of striatal signaling to contribute an article in this Special Issue... Some of the contributors also served as expert reviewers for articles... In addition, I would like to thank external reviewers for their valuable criticisms and suggestions that contributed to the success of this Special Issue.

No MeSH data available.