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Molecular phylogeny of grunts (Teleostei, Haemulidae), with an emphasis on the ecology, evolution, and speciation history of new world species.

Tavera JJ, Acero P A, Balart EF, Bernardi G - BMC Evol. Biol. (2012)

Bottom Line: The genus Pomadasys was shown to be polyphyletic and Haemulon, Anisotremus, and Plectorhinchus were found to be paraphyletic.Four of seven presumed geminate pairs were indeed found to be sister species, however our data did not support a contemporaneous divergence.This study also illustrates how life history habitat influences speciation and evolutionary trajectories.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Centro de Investigaciones Biológicas del Noroeste, SC, La Paz, BCS, México, USA. tavera.jose@gmail.com

ABSTRACT

Background: The fish family Haemulidae is divided in two subfamilies, Haemulinae and Plectorhynchinae (sweetlips), including approximately 17 genera and 145 species. The family has a broad geographic distribution that encompasses contrasting ecological habitats resulting in a unique potential for evolutionary hypotheses testing. In the present work we have examined the phylogenetic relationships of the family using selected representatives of additional Percomorpha based on Bayesian and Maximum likelihood methods by means of three mitochondrial genes. We also developed a phylogenetic hypothesis of the New World species based on five molecular markers (three mitochondrial and two nuclear) as a framework to evaluate the evolutionary history, the ecological diversification and speciation patterns of this group.

Results: Mitochondrial genes and different reconstruction methods consistently recovered a monophyletic Haemulidae with the Sillaginidae as its sister clade (although with low support values). Previous studies proposed different relationships that were not recovered in this analysis. We also present a robust molecular phylogeny of Haemulinae based on the combined data of two nuclear and three mitochondrial genes. All topologies support the monophyly of both sub-families (Haemulinae, Plectorhinchinae). The genus Pomadasys was shown to be polyphyletic and Haemulon, Anisotremus, and Plectorhinchus were found to be paraphyletic. Four of seven presumed geminate pairs were indeed found to be sister species, however our data did not support a contemporaneous divergence. Analyses also revealed that differential use of habitat might have played an important role in the speciation dynamics of this group of fishes, in particular among New World species where extensive sample coverage was available.

Conclusions: This study provides a new hypothesis for the sister clade of Hamulidae and a robust phylogeny of the latter. The presence of para- and polyphyletic genera underscores the need for a taxonomic reassessment within the family. A scarce sampling of the Old World Pomadasys species prevents us to definitively point to a New World origin of the sub-familiy Hamulinae, however our data suggest that this is likely to be the case. This study also illustrates how life history habitat influences speciation and evolutionary trajectories.

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Reconstruction of ancestral areas mapped onto the BEAST tree. Three different reconstruction methods are depicted. Left was built based on S-DIVA. Center bayesian DIVA and right DEC under LAGRANGE.
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Figure 8: Reconstruction of ancestral areas mapped onto the BEAST tree. Three different reconstruction methods are depicted. Left was built based on S-DIVA. Center bayesian DIVA and right DEC under LAGRANGE.

Mentions: The inferred historical biogeographic scenarios from analyses using LAGRANGE (DEC) and RASP (S-DIVA, and Bayesian) are presented in Figure 8. The inferred ancestral areas at internal nodes estimated using the Bayesian RASP correspond largely to the results obtained from the ML habitat reconstruction (Figure 7). RASP also estimated less combined ancestral areas than DEC and S-DIVA. The maximum likelihood reconstruction of ancestral areas for the basal node of haemulines differs from RASP reconstructions in that the most recent common ancestor (tmrca) of this clade most likely appeared in a broad area including the eastern Pacific and the Indo-Pacific (i.e., Pacific ocean), while in the other two methods the eastern Pacific was the most probable region from which this lineage could be originated. Range expansion into the western Atlantic occurred later, mainly with the MCRA of HaemulonGenyatremus, and Anisotremus moricandi. More recent transition events across eastern Pacific and western Atlantic occurred in New World grunts evolutionary history, when the final closure of the Panamian isthmus had not yet occurred. This geological event has been widely related to species divergence and its final closure estimated during the Mid Pliocene about 3.5-3.1 MyBP, however it has been demonstrated that the isthmus became an ecological barrier much earlier [38].


Molecular phylogeny of grunts (Teleostei, Haemulidae), with an emphasis on the ecology, evolution, and speciation history of new world species.

Tavera JJ, Acero P A, Balart EF, Bernardi G - BMC Evol. Biol. (2012)

Reconstruction of ancestral areas mapped onto the BEAST tree. Three different reconstruction methods are depicted. Left was built based on S-DIVA. Center bayesian DIVA and right DEC under LAGRANGE.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3472276&req=5

Figure 8: Reconstruction of ancestral areas mapped onto the BEAST tree. Three different reconstruction methods are depicted. Left was built based on S-DIVA. Center bayesian DIVA and right DEC under LAGRANGE.
Mentions: The inferred historical biogeographic scenarios from analyses using LAGRANGE (DEC) and RASP (S-DIVA, and Bayesian) are presented in Figure 8. The inferred ancestral areas at internal nodes estimated using the Bayesian RASP correspond largely to the results obtained from the ML habitat reconstruction (Figure 7). RASP also estimated less combined ancestral areas than DEC and S-DIVA. The maximum likelihood reconstruction of ancestral areas for the basal node of haemulines differs from RASP reconstructions in that the most recent common ancestor (tmrca) of this clade most likely appeared in a broad area including the eastern Pacific and the Indo-Pacific (i.e., Pacific ocean), while in the other two methods the eastern Pacific was the most probable region from which this lineage could be originated. Range expansion into the western Atlantic occurred later, mainly with the MCRA of HaemulonGenyatremus, and Anisotremus moricandi. More recent transition events across eastern Pacific and western Atlantic occurred in New World grunts evolutionary history, when the final closure of the Panamian isthmus had not yet occurred. This geological event has been widely related to species divergence and its final closure estimated during the Mid Pliocene about 3.5-3.1 MyBP, however it has been demonstrated that the isthmus became an ecological barrier much earlier [38].

Bottom Line: The genus Pomadasys was shown to be polyphyletic and Haemulon, Anisotremus, and Plectorhinchus were found to be paraphyletic.Four of seven presumed geminate pairs were indeed found to be sister species, however our data did not support a contemporaneous divergence.This study also illustrates how life history habitat influences speciation and evolutionary trajectories.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Centro de Investigaciones Biológicas del Noroeste, SC, La Paz, BCS, México, USA. tavera.jose@gmail.com

ABSTRACT

Background: The fish family Haemulidae is divided in two subfamilies, Haemulinae and Plectorhynchinae (sweetlips), including approximately 17 genera and 145 species. The family has a broad geographic distribution that encompasses contrasting ecological habitats resulting in a unique potential for evolutionary hypotheses testing. In the present work we have examined the phylogenetic relationships of the family using selected representatives of additional Percomorpha based on Bayesian and Maximum likelihood methods by means of three mitochondrial genes. We also developed a phylogenetic hypothesis of the New World species based on five molecular markers (three mitochondrial and two nuclear) as a framework to evaluate the evolutionary history, the ecological diversification and speciation patterns of this group.

Results: Mitochondrial genes and different reconstruction methods consistently recovered a monophyletic Haemulidae with the Sillaginidae as its sister clade (although with low support values). Previous studies proposed different relationships that were not recovered in this analysis. We also present a robust molecular phylogeny of Haemulinae based on the combined data of two nuclear and three mitochondrial genes. All topologies support the monophyly of both sub-families (Haemulinae, Plectorhinchinae). The genus Pomadasys was shown to be polyphyletic and Haemulon, Anisotremus, and Plectorhinchus were found to be paraphyletic. Four of seven presumed geminate pairs were indeed found to be sister species, however our data did not support a contemporaneous divergence. Analyses also revealed that differential use of habitat might have played an important role in the speciation dynamics of this group of fishes, in particular among New World species where extensive sample coverage was available.

Conclusions: This study provides a new hypothesis for the sister clade of Hamulidae and a robust phylogeny of the latter. The presence of para- and polyphyletic genera underscores the need for a taxonomic reassessment within the family. A scarce sampling of the Old World Pomadasys species prevents us to definitively point to a New World origin of the sub-familiy Hamulinae, however our data suggest that this is likely to be the case. This study also illustrates how life history habitat influences speciation and evolutionary trajectories.

Show MeSH