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Molecular phylogeny of grunts (Teleostei, Haemulidae), with an emphasis on the ecology, evolution, and speciation history of new world species.

Tavera JJ, Acero P A, Balart EF, Bernardi G - BMC Evol. Biol. (2012)

Bottom Line: The genus Pomadasys was shown to be polyphyletic and Haemulon, Anisotremus, and Plectorhinchus were found to be paraphyletic.Four of seven presumed geminate pairs were indeed found to be sister species, however our data did not support a contemporaneous divergence.This study also illustrates how life history habitat influences speciation and evolutionary trajectories.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Centro de Investigaciones BiolĂłgicas del Noroeste, SC, La Paz, BCS, MĂ©xico, USA. tavera.jose@gmail.com

ABSTRACT

Background: The fish family Haemulidae is divided in two subfamilies, Haemulinae and Plectorhynchinae (sweetlips), including approximately 17 genera and 145 species. The family has a broad geographic distribution that encompasses contrasting ecological habitats resulting in a unique potential for evolutionary hypotheses testing. In the present work we have examined the phylogenetic relationships of the family using selected representatives of additional Percomorpha based on Bayesian and Maximum likelihood methods by means of three mitochondrial genes. We also developed a phylogenetic hypothesis of the New World species based on five molecular markers (three mitochondrial and two nuclear) as a framework to evaluate the evolutionary history, the ecological diversification and speciation patterns of this group.

Results: Mitochondrial genes and different reconstruction methods consistently recovered a monophyletic Haemulidae with the Sillaginidae as its sister clade (although with low support values). Previous studies proposed different relationships that were not recovered in this analysis. We also present a robust molecular phylogeny of Haemulinae based on the combined data of two nuclear and three mitochondrial genes. All topologies support the monophyly of both sub-families (Haemulinae, Plectorhinchinae). The genus Pomadasys was shown to be polyphyletic and Haemulon, Anisotremus, and Plectorhinchus were found to be paraphyletic. Four of seven presumed geminate pairs were indeed found to be sister species, however our data did not support a contemporaneous divergence. Analyses also revealed that differential use of habitat might have played an important role in the speciation dynamics of this group of fishes, in particular among New World species where extensive sample coverage was available.

Conclusions: This study provides a new hypothesis for the sister clade of Hamulidae and a robust phylogeny of the latter. The presence of para- and polyphyletic genera underscores the need for a taxonomic reassessment within the family. A scarce sampling of the Old World Pomadasys species prevents us to definitively point to a New World origin of the sub-familiy Hamulinae, however our data suggest that this is likely to be the case. This study also illustrates how life history habitat influences speciation and evolutionary trajectories.

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100 random samples of tMCRA from three geminate nodes taken from 10000 *BEAST posterior trees. Nodes used were ( A.surinamensis +  A.interruptus, C.nobilis +  C.serrifer, H.steindachneri eastern Pacific +  H.steindachneri western Atlantic).
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Figure 6: 100 random samples of tMCRA from three geminate nodes taken from 10000 *BEAST posterior trees. Nodes used were ( A.surinamensis +  A.interruptus, C.nobilis +  C.serrifer, H.steindachneri eastern Pacific +  H.steindachneri western Atlantic).

Mentions: These differences can be associated with two different hypotheses: i) an issue of differential substitution rate across lineages; or ii) a difference in time of divergence between geminate species, which in turn has three possible scenarios. Smaller divergence may be attributed to a secondary contact between two former species during the recent breaching of the Isthmus of Panama that occurred approximately 2 Mya [36], as opposed to 3.1-3.5 Mya the generally accepted time of the final closure of the Isthmus [37], or speciation in some pairs began before the definitive emergence of the Isthmus. Under a time relative run (BEAST), rates were found to be similar across all four pairs, favouring the second assumption, where divergence events are not occurring simultaneously in time. To test this hypothesis, every tMCRA value of all geminate pairs was extracted from the posterior density of trees and compared among them. In 69% of the trees the tMCRA of the sister pair A. taeniatus + A.virginicus was older than that of A. interruptus + A.surinamensis with a Ln Bayes factor of 0.839; while in 99-98% of the trees the tMCRA of Haemulon sister pair was older than any Anisotremus pair (Ln BF: 4.88-3.86); and in 98% Conodon tMCRA was older than Hamulon Ln BF = 3.87. Yet, CI tMCRA nodes overlap among all but Anisotremus pairs, differences among relative divergence times were identified as shown on Figure 6.


Molecular phylogeny of grunts (Teleostei, Haemulidae), with an emphasis on the ecology, evolution, and speciation history of new world species.

Tavera JJ, Acero P A, Balart EF, Bernardi G - BMC Evol. Biol. (2012)

100 random samples of tMCRA from three geminate nodes taken from 10000 *BEAST posterior trees. Nodes used were ( A.surinamensis +  A.interruptus, C.nobilis +  C.serrifer, H.steindachneri eastern Pacific +  H.steindachneri western Atlantic).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3472276&req=5

Figure 6: 100 random samples of tMCRA from three geminate nodes taken from 10000 *BEAST posterior trees. Nodes used were ( A.surinamensis +  A.interruptus, C.nobilis +  C.serrifer, H.steindachneri eastern Pacific +  H.steindachneri western Atlantic).
Mentions: These differences can be associated with two different hypotheses: i) an issue of differential substitution rate across lineages; or ii) a difference in time of divergence between geminate species, which in turn has three possible scenarios. Smaller divergence may be attributed to a secondary contact between two former species during the recent breaching of the Isthmus of Panama that occurred approximately 2 Mya [36], as opposed to 3.1-3.5 Mya the generally accepted time of the final closure of the Isthmus [37], or speciation in some pairs began before the definitive emergence of the Isthmus. Under a time relative run (BEAST), rates were found to be similar across all four pairs, favouring the second assumption, where divergence events are not occurring simultaneously in time. To test this hypothesis, every tMCRA value of all geminate pairs was extracted from the posterior density of trees and compared among them. In 69% of the trees the tMCRA of the sister pair A. taeniatus + A.virginicus was older than that of A. interruptus + A.surinamensis with a Ln Bayes factor of 0.839; while in 99-98% of the trees the tMCRA of Haemulon sister pair was older than any Anisotremus pair (Ln BF: 4.88-3.86); and in 98% Conodon tMCRA was older than Hamulon Ln BF = 3.87. Yet, CI tMCRA nodes overlap among all but Anisotremus pairs, differences among relative divergence times were identified as shown on Figure 6.

Bottom Line: The genus Pomadasys was shown to be polyphyletic and Haemulon, Anisotremus, and Plectorhinchus were found to be paraphyletic.Four of seven presumed geminate pairs were indeed found to be sister species, however our data did not support a contemporaneous divergence.This study also illustrates how life history habitat influences speciation and evolutionary trajectories.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Centro de Investigaciones BiolĂłgicas del Noroeste, SC, La Paz, BCS, MĂ©xico, USA. tavera.jose@gmail.com

ABSTRACT

Background: The fish family Haemulidae is divided in two subfamilies, Haemulinae and Plectorhynchinae (sweetlips), including approximately 17 genera and 145 species. The family has a broad geographic distribution that encompasses contrasting ecological habitats resulting in a unique potential for evolutionary hypotheses testing. In the present work we have examined the phylogenetic relationships of the family using selected representatives of additional Percomorpha based on Bayesian and Maximum likelihood methods by means of three mitochondrial genes. We also developed a phylogenetic hypothesis of the New World species based on five molecular markers (three mitochondrial and two nuclear) as a framework to evaluate the evolutionary history, the ecological diversification and speciation patterns of this group.

Results: Mitochondrial genes and different reconstruction methods consistently recovered a monophyletic Haemulidae with the Sillaginidae as its sister clade (although with low support values). Previous studies proposed different relationships that were not recovered in this analysis. We also present a robust molecular phylogeny of Haemulinae based on the combined data of two nuclear and three mitochondrial genes. All topologies support the monophyly of both sub-families (Haemulinae, Plectorhinchinae). The genus Pomadasys was shown to be polyphyletic and Haemulon, Anisotremus, and Plectorhinchus were found to be paraphyletic. Four of seven presumed geminate pairs were indeed found to be sister species, however our data did not support a contemporaneous divergence. Analyses also revealed that differential use of habitat might have played an important role in the speciation dynamics of this group of fishes, in particular among New World species where extensive sample coverage was available.

Conclusions: This study provides a new hypothesis for the sister clade of Hamulidae and a robust phylogeny of the latter. The presence of para- and polyphyletic genera underscores the need for a taxonomic reassessment within the family. A scarce sampling of the Old World Pomadasys species prevents us to definitively point to a New World origin of the sub-familiy Hamulinae, however our data suggest that this is likely to be the case. This study also illustrates how life history habitat influences speciation and evolutionary trajectories.

Show MeSH