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Bioaccumulative and conchological assessment of heavy metal transfer in a soil-plant-snail food chain.

Nica DV, Bura M, Gergen I, Harmanescu M, Bordean DM - Chem Cent J (2012)

Bottom Line: There were significant differences among sampling sites for WN, SH, and RSH when compared with reference snails.In contrast, RSH correlated significantly only with Pb concentration in hepatopancreas.Therefore, our results highlight the Roman snail (Helix pomatia) potential to be used in environmental monitoring studies as bioindicator of HM pollution.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Banat's University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine from Timisoara, Faculty of Food Processing Technology, Calea Aradului 119, RO 300645, Timisoara, Romania. despina.bordean@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT

Background: Copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb) can pose serious threats to environmental health because they tend to bioaccumulate in terrestrial ecosystems. We investigated under field conditions the transfer of these heavy metals in a soil-plant-snail food chain in Banat area, Romania. The main goal of this paper was to assess the Roman snail (Helix pomatia) usefulness in environmental monitoring as bioindicator of heavy metal accumulation. Eight sampling sites, selected by different history of heavy metal (HM) exposure, were chosen to be sampled for soil, nettle leaves, and newly matured snails. This study also aimed to identify the putative effects of HM accumulation in the environment on phenotypic variability in selected shell features, which included shell height (SH), relative shell height (RSH), and whorl number (WN).

Results: Significantly higher amounts of HMs were accumulated in snail hepatopancreas and not in foot. Cu, Zn, and Cd have biomagnified in the snail body, particularly in the hepatopancreas. In contrast, Pb decreased when going up into the food chain. Zn, Cd, and Pb correlated highly with each other at all levels of the investigated food chain. Zn and Pb exhibited an effective soil-plant transfer, whereas in the snail body only foot Cu concentration was correlated with that in soil. There were significant differences among sampling sites for WN, SH, and RSH when compared with reference snails. WN was strongly correlated with Cd and Pb concentrations in nettle leaves but not with Cu and Zn. SH was independent of HM concentrations in soil, snail hepatopancreas, and foot. However, SH correlated negatively with nettle leaves concentrations for each HM except Cu. In contrast, RSH correlated significantly only with Pb concentration in hepatopancreas.

Conclusions: The snail hepatopancreas accumulates high amounts of HMs, and therefore, this organ can function as a reliable biomarker for tracking HM bioavailability in soil. Long-term exposure to HMs via contaminated food might influence the variability of shell traits in snail populations. Therefore, our results highlight the Roman snail (Helix pomatia) potential to be used in environmental monitoring studies as bioindicator of HM pollution.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Dendrogram of the cluster analysis based on HM accumulation in the snail hepatopancreas. HP1-HP7 – HM concentrations in snail hepatopancreas at sites 1-7 (THM1-THM7); HPR – HM concentrations in snail hepatopancreas at reference site (THR).
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Figure 5: Dendrogram of the cluster analysis based on HM accumulation in the snail hepatopancreas. HP1-HP7 – HM concentrations in snail hepatopancreas at sites 1-7 (THM1-THM7); HPR – HM concentrations in snail hepatopancreas at reference site (THR).

Mentions: The dendrogram (Figure 5) shows the results obtained from using hierarchical cluster analysis and squared Euclidean distance as a criterion of similarity. Therefore, based on HM loading in snail hepatopancreas, the investigated locations can be classified into three main groups (r = 0.81). The first group corresponds to the most polluted areas from the investigated sites (THM1 and THM6). Both areas are well known for long and intensive exposure to HMs. This group is also characterized by the biggest Euclidean distance to the other groups. The second group corresponds to the cleanest areas in terms of HMs accumulated in the snail hepatopancreas. The three sites in this group are either located in low-anthropized areas (THR) or in areas exposed to other types of industrial pollution, particularly to chemical industry (THM3, THM4). The last group includes locations placed near potential sources of air pollution with HMs: THM2 – power plant, THM5 – vehicular traffic, THM7 – steel industry. Therefore, our results suggested that regions with similar HM exposure can be appropriately grouped by applying cluster analysis to HM accumulation in snail hepatopancreas.


Bioaccumulative and conchological assessment of heavy metal transfer in a soil-plant-snail food chain.

Nica DV, Bura M, Gergen I, Harmanescu M, Bordean DM - Chem Cent J (2012)

Dendrogram of the cluster analysis based on HM accumulation in the snail hepatopancreas. HP1-HP7 – HM concentrations in snail hepatopancreas at sites 1-7 (THM1-THM7); HPR – HM concentrations in snail hepatopancreas at reference site (THR).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3472253&req=5

Figure 5: Dendrogram of the cluster analysis based on HM accumulation in the snail hepatopancreas. HP1-HP7 – HM concentrations in snail hepatopancreas at sites 1-7 (THM1-THM7); HPR – HM concentrations in snail hepatopancreas at reference site (THR).
Mentions: The dendrogram (Figure 5) shows the results obtained from using hierarchical cluster analysis and squared Euclidean distance as a criterion of similarity. Therefore, based on HM loading in snail hepatopancreas, the investigated locations can be classified into three main groups (r = 0.81). The first group corresponds to the most polluted areas from the investigated sites (THM1 and THM6). Both areas are well known for long and intensive exposure to HMs. This group is also characterized by the biggest Euclidean distance to the other groups. The second group corresponds to the cleanest areas in terms of HMs accumulated in the snail hepatopancreas. The three sites in this group are either located in low-anthropized areas (THR) or in areas exposed to other types of industrial pollution, particularly to chemical industry (THM3, THM4). The last group includes locations placed near potential sources of air pollution with HMs: THM2 – power plant, THM5 – vehicular traffic, THM7 – steel industry. Therefore, our results suggested that regions with similar HM exposure can be appropriately grouped by applying cluster analysis to HM accumulation in snail hepatopancreas.

Bottom Line: There were significant differences among sampling sites for WN, SH, and RSH when compared with reference snails.In contrast, RSH correlated significantly only with Pb concentration in hepatopancreas.Therefore, our results highlight the Roman snail (Helix pomatia) potential to be used in environmental monitoring studies as bioindicator of HM pollution.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Banat's University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine from Timisoara, Faculty of Food Processing Technology, Calea Aradului 119, RO 300645, Timisoara, Romania. despina.bordean@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT

Background: Copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb) can pose serious threats to environmental health because they tend to bioaccumulate in terrestrial ecosystems. We investigated under field conditions the transfer of these heavy metals in a soil-plant-snail food chain in Banat area, Romania. The main goal of this paper was to assess the Roman snail (Helix pomatia) usefulness in environmental monitoring as bioindicator of heavy metal accumulation. Eight sampling sites, selected by different history of heavy metal (HM) exposure, were chosen to be sampled for soil, nettle leaves, and newly matured snails. This study also aimed to identify the putative effects of HM accumulation in the environment on phenotypic variability in selected shell features, which included shell height (SH), relative shell height (RSH), and whorl number (WN).

Results: Significantly higher amounts of HMs were accumulated in snail hepatopancreas and not in foot. Cu, Zn, and Cd have biomagnified in the snail body, particularly in the hepatopancreas. In contrast, Pb decreased when going up into the food chain. Zn, Cd, and Pb correlated highly with each other at all levels of the investigated food chain. Zn and Pb exhibited an effective soil-plant transfer, whereas in the snail body only foot Cu concentration was correlated with that in soil. There were significant differences among sampling sites for WN, SH, and RSH when compared with reference snails. WN was strongly correlated with Cd and Pb concentrations in nettle leaves but not with Cu and Zn. SH was independent of HM concentrations in soil, snail hepatopancreas, and foot. However, SH correlated negatively with nettle leaves concentrations for each HM except Cu. In contrast, RSH correlated significantly only with Pb concentration in hepatopancreas.

Conclusions: The snail hepatopancreas accumulates high amounts of HMs, and therefore, this organ can function as a reliable biomarker for tracking HM bioavailability in soil. Long-term exposure to HMs via contaminated food might influence the variability of shell traits in snail populations. Therefore, our results highlight the Roman snail (Helix pomatia) potential to be used in environmental monitoring studies as bioindicator of HM pollution.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus