Limits...
Bioaccumulative and conchological assessment of heavy metal transfer in a soil-plant-snail food chain.

Nica DV, Bura M, Gergen I, Harmanescu M, Bordean DM - Chem Cent J (2012)

Bottom Line: There were significant differences among sampling sites for WN, SH, and RSH when compared with reference snails.In contrast, RSH correlated significantly only with Pb concentration in hepatopancreas.Therefore, our results highlight the Roman snail (Helix pomatia) potential to be used in environmental monitoring studies as bioindicator of HM pollution.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Banat's University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine from Timisoara, Faculty of Food Processing Technology, Calea Aradului 119, RO 300645, Timisoara, Romania. despina.bordean@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT

Background: Copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb) can pose serious threats to environmental health because they tend to bioaccumulate in terrestrial ecosystems. We investigated under field conditions the transfer of these heavy metals in a soil-plant-snail food chain in Banat area, Romania. The main goal of this paper was to assess the Roman snail (Helix pomatia) usefulness in environmental monitoring as bioindicator of heavy metal accumulation. Eight sampling sites, selected by different history of heavy metal (HM) exposure, were chosen to be sampled for soil, nettle leaves, and newly matured snails. This study also aimed to identify the putative effects of HM accumulation in the environment on phenotypic variability in selected shell features, which included shell height (SH), relative shell height (RSH), and whorl number (WN).

Results: Significantly higher amounts of HMs were accumulated in snail hepatopancreas and not in foot. Cu, Zn, and Cd have biomagnified in the snail body, particularly in the hepatopancreas. In contrast, Pb decreased when going up into the food chain. Zn, Cd, and Pb correlated highly with each other at all levels of the investigated food chain. Zn and Pb exhibited an effective soil-plant transfer, whereas in the snail body only foot Cu concentration was correlated with that in soil. There were significant differences among sampling sites for WN, SH, and RSH when compared with reference snails. WN was strongly correlated with Cd and Pb concentrations in nettle leaves but not with Cu and Zn. SH was independent of HM concentrations in soil, snail hepatopancreas, and foot. However, SH correlated negatively with nettle leaves concentrations for each HM except Cu. In contrast, RSH correlated significantly only with Pb concentration in hepatopancreas.

Conclusions: The snail hepatopancreas accumulates high amounts of HMs, and therefore, this organ can function as a reliable biomarker for tracking HM bioavailability in soil. Long-term exposure to HMs via contaminated food might influence the variability of shell traits in snail populations. Therefore, our results highlight the Roman snail (Helix pomatia) potential to be used in environmental monitoring studies as bioindicator of HM pollution.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Cd concentration in environmental matrices (soil, nettle leaves, snail body). Legend. SR – HM concentrations in soil at reference site (THR), UR – HM concentrations in nettle leaves at reference site (THR), HPR – HM concentrations in snail hepatopancreas at reference site (THR), SFR – HM concentrations in snail foot at reference site (THR), S1-S7 – HM concentrations in soil at sites 1-7 (THM1-THM7), U1-U7 – HM concentrations in nettle leaves at sites 1-7 (THM1-THM7), HP1-HP7 – HM concentrations in snail hepatopancreas at sites 1-7 (THM1-THM7), SF1-SF7 – HM concentrations in snail hepatopancreas at sites 1-7 (THM1-THM7), ATV – alert threshold level (HM concentration in soil). NC – normal content level (HM concentration in soil).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3472253&req=5

Figure 3: Cd concentration in environmental matrices (soil, nettle leaves, snail body). Legend. SR – HM concentrations in soil at reference site (THR), UR – HM concentrations in nettle leaves at reference site (THR), HPR – HM concentrations in snail hepatopancreas at reference site (THR), SFR – HM concentrations in snail foot at reference site (THR), S1-S7 – HM concentrations in soil at sites 1-7 (THM1-THM7), U1-U7 – HM concentrations in nettle leaves at sites 1-7 (THM1-THM7), HP1-HP7 – HM concentrations in snail hepatopancreas at sites 1-7 (THM1-THM7), SF1-SF7 – HM concentrations in snail hepatopancreas at sites 1-7 (THM1-THM7), ATV – alert threshold level (HM concentration in soil). NC – normal content level (HM concentration in soil).

Mentions: Our results showed that Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb concentrations in soil were significantly different among sampling sites (Cu, Zn, Cd: p < 0.01; Pb: p < 0.05). The lowest HM values were registered for the site THR (as shown in Figure1,2,3,4), and therefore, they validated the choosing of this location as the reference site. The maximal Cu and Zn loadings in soil were found at site THM2 (Figure1,2). Soil Cd concentration exhibited the highest value at site THM5 (Figure 3), whereas the maximal amount of Pb in soil was detected at site THM4 (Figure 4). Soil HM concentrations were comparable with results of previous pedological studies in Banat area[18,19,29,30]. However, measured values were generally lower than in other areas exposed to intense anthropogenic pressure and pollution. Therefore, similar studies that investigated HM food chain transfer to land snails in Copsa Mica region, Romania[31] and the Biesboch flood-plain area, the Netherlands[22] frequently found 5-10 times higher levels of HM accumulation in background soils. These differences were explained by the different level and history of HM exposure. Both Copsa Mica and Biesboch areas are well known in Europe as ‘hotspots’ of HM pollution[32,33] whereas the Banat area may be regarded as a low to moderate HM polluted area[34].


Bioaccumulative and conchological assessment of heavy metal transfer in a soil-plant-snail food chain.

Nica DV, Bura M, Gergen I, Harmanescu M, Bordean DM - Chem Cent J (2012)

Cd concentration in environmental matrices (soil, nettle leaves, snail body). Legend. SR – HM concentrations in soil at reference site (THR), UR – HM concentrations in nettle leaves at reference site (THR), HPR – HM concentrations in snail hepatopancreas at reference site (THR), SFR – HM concentrations in snail foot at reference site (THR), S1-S7 – HM concentrations in soil at sites 1-7 (THM1-THM7), U1-U7 – HM concentrations in nettle leaves at sites 1-7 (THM1-THM7), HP1-HP7 – HM concentrations in snail hepatopancreas at sites 1-7 (THM1-THM7), SF1-SF7 – HM concentrations in snail hepatopancreas at sites 1-7 (THM1-THM7), ATV – alert threshold level (HM concentration in soil). NC – normal content level (HM concentration in soil).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3472253&req=5

Figure 3: Cd concentration in environmental matrices (soil, nettle leaves, snail body). Legend. SR – HM concentrations in soil at reference site (THR), UR – HM concentrations in nettle leaves at reference site (THR), HPR – HM concentrations in snail hepatopancreas at reference site (THR), SFR – HM concentrations in snail foot at reference site (THR), S1-S7 – HM concentrations in soil at sites 1-7 (THM1-THM7), U1-U7 – HM concentrations in nettle leaves at sites 1-7 (THM1-THM7), HP1-HP7 – HM concentrations in snail hepatopancreas at sites 1-7 (THM1-THM7), SF1-SF7 – HM concentrations in snail hepatopancreas at sites 1-7 (THM1-THM7), ATV – alert threshold level (HM concentration in soil). NC – normal content level (HM concentration in soil).
Mentions: Our results showed that Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb concentrations in soil were significantly different among sampling sites (Cu, Zn, Cd: p < 0.01; Pb: p < 0.05). The lowest HM values were registered for the site THR (as shown in Figure1,2,3,4), and therefore, they validated the choosing of this location as the reference site. The maximal Cu and Zn loadings in soil were found at site THM2 (Figure1,2). Soil Cd concentration exhibited the highest value at site THM5 (Figure 3), whereas the maximal amount of Pb in soil was detected at site THM4 (Figure 4). Soil HM concentrations were comparable with results of previous pedological studies in Banat area[18,19,29,30]. However, measured values were generally lower than in other areas exposed to intense anthropogenic pressure and pollution. Therefore, similar studies that investigated HM food chain transfer to land snails in Copsa Mica region, Romania[31] and the Biesboch flood-plain area, the Netherlands[22] frequently found 5-10 times higher levels of HM accumulation in background soils. These differences were explained by the different level and history of HM exposure. Both Copsa Mica and Biesboch areas are well known in Europe as ‘hotspots’ of HM pollution[32,33] whereas the Banat area may be regarded as a low to moderate HM polluted area[34].

Bottom Line: There were significant differences among sampling sites for WN, SH, and RSH when compared with reference snails.In contrast, RSH correlated significantly only with Pb concentration in hepatopancreas.Therefore, our results highlight the Roman snail (Helix pomatia) potential to be used in environmental monitoring studies as bioindicator of HM pollution.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Banat's University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine from Timisoara, Faculty of Food Processing Technology, Calea Aradului 119, RO 300645, Timisoara, Romania. despina.bordean@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT

Background: Copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb) can pose serious threats to environmental health because they tend to bioaccumulate in terrestrial ecosystems. We investigated under field conditions the transfer of these heavy metals in a soil-plant-snail food chain in Banat area, Romania. The main goal of this paper was to assess the Roman snail (Helix pomatia) usefulness in environmental monitoring as bioindicator of heavy metal accumulation. Eight sampling sites, selected by different history of heavy metal (HM) exposure, were chosen to be sampled for soil, nettle leaves, and newly matured snails. This study also aimed to identify the putative effects of HM accumulation in the environment on phenotypic variability in selected shell features, which included shell height (SH), relative shell height (RSH), and whorl number (WN).

Results: Significantly higher amounts of HMs were accumulated in snail hepatopancreas and not in foot. Cu, Zn, and Cd have biomagnified in the snail body, particularly in the hepatopancreas. In contrast, Pb decreased when going up into the food chain. Zn, Cd, and Pb correlated highly with each other at all levels of the investigated food chain. Zn and Pb exhibited an effective soil-plant transfer, whereas in the snail body only foot Cu concentration was correlated with that in soil. There were significant differences among sampling sites for WN, SH, and RSH when compared with reference snails. WN was strongly correlated with Cd and Pb concentrations in nettle leaves but not with Cu and Zn. SH was independent of HM concentrations in soil, snail hepatopancreas, and foot. However, SH correlated negatively with nettle leaves concentrations for each HM except Cu. In contrast, RSH correlated significantly only with Pb concentration in hepatopancreas.

Conclusions: The snail hepatopancreas accumulates high amounts of HMs, and therefore, this organ can function as a reliable biomarker for tracking HM bioavailability in soil. Long-term exposure to HMs via contaminated food might influence the variability of shell traits in snail populations. Therefore, our results highlight the Roman snail (Helix pomatia) potential to be used in environmental monitoring studies as bioindicator of HM pollution.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus