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Expression of Bis in the mouse gastrointestinal system.

Lee YD, Yoon JS, Yoon HH, Youn HJ, Kim J, Lee JH - Anat Cell Biol (2012)

Bottom Line: Ganglionated plexuses, located in submucous layers, as well as intermuscular layers, were specifically immunoreactive for Bis.Immunostaining with neuron specific esterase antibodies indicate that Bis is also present in the cell bodies of ganglions in the enteric nervous system (ENS).Our findings indicate that Bis plays a role in regulating GI functions, such as motility and absorption, through modulating signal transmission between the ENS and smooth muscles or the intestinal epitheliums.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, The Catholic University of Korea College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

ABSTRACT
The Bcl-2 interacting death suppressor (Bis) protein is known to be involved in a variety of pathophysiological conditions. We recently generated bis-deficient mice, which exhibited early lethality with typical nutritional deprivation status. To further investigate the molecular basis for the malnutrition phenotype of bis deficient mice, we explored Bis expression in the digestive system of normal mice. Western blot analysis and quantitative real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis indicated that Bis expression is highest in the esophagus, followed by the stomach, colon, jejunum and ileum. Immunohistochemical data indicated that Bis expression is restricted to the stratified squamous epitheliums in the esophagus and forestomach, and was not notable in the columnar epitheliums in the stomach, small intestine and colon. In addition, strong Bis immunoreactivity was detected in the striated muscles surrounding the esophagus and smooth muscles at a lesser intensity throughout the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Ganglionated plexuses, located in submucous layers, as well as intermuscular layers, were specifically immunoreactive for Bis. Immunofluorescence studies revealed that Bis is co-localized in glial fibrillary acidic protein-expressing enteric glial cells. Immunostaining with neuron specific esterase antibodies indicate that Bis is also present in the cell bodies of ganglions in the enteric nervous system (ENS). Our findings indicate that Bis plays a role in regulating GI functions, such as motility and absorption, through modulating signal transmission between the ENS and smooth muscles or the intestinal epitheliums.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Comparison of immunoreactivity for Bis (A, C) and neuron specific esterase (NSE) (B, D) in adjacent sections of the jejunum. The large cell bodies, which were immunostained with Bis antibodies (A, C), were also positive for NSE (B, D) in submucosal plexus (arrows), as well as in myetneric plexus (arrowheads). Higher magnifications of the boxes in A and B were shown in C and D, respectively. Scale bars=20 µm (A-D).
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Figure 5: Comparison of immunoreactivity for Bis (A, C) and neuron specific esterase (NSE) (B, D) in adjacent sections of the jejunum. The large cell bodies, which were immunostained with Bis antibodies (A, C), were also positive for NSE (B, D) in submucosal plexus (arrows), as well as in myetneric plexus (arrowheads). Higher magnifications of the boxes in A and B were shown in C and D, respectively. Scale bars=20 µm (A-D).

Mentions: In addition to the squamous epitheliums and smooth muscles, Bis immunoreactivity was specifically detected in the myenteric nerve plexus, also called Auerbach's plexus [28], which is located between inner and outer smooth muscles that cover the esophagus, stomach and intestines (Figs. 2D, 3B, 5A). Another enteric nerve plexus, which is mainly present in the submucosa of the small intestine, called Meissner's plexus, also showed Bis immunoreactivy, the level of which were comparable to that in Auerbach's plexus (Figs. 3A, 5A). The enteric nerve plexus is composed by several types of cell populations, including neurons, glia, and interstitial cells of Cajal, and mesenchymal fibroblasts [28, 29]. An examination at higher magnification indicates that Bis immunoreactivity is localized in two populations in the enteric nerve plexus. Bis expresses in the cytoplasm of cell bodies in a population with a large nucleus and obvious nucleoli representing neurons (Fig. 3A, C). Bis expression was also detected in the cytoplasm and the extending process of the cells, which have a smaller nucleus than smooth muscle cells, indicating enteric glial cells (Fig. 3B, D). To identify the Bis-immunoreactive cells in the enteric nerve plexus, double immunofluorescence labeling was conducted, using a Bis antibody and gial GFAP antibody as a marker of enteric glial cells. Fig. 4 shows that nearly all of the GFAP expressing enteric glial cells are also immunoreactive for Bis, corresponding to a fraction of the Bis-expressing cells. We also performed immunohistochemistry with an antibody for NSE, using serial sections next to the Bis-stained sections, to compare with the distribution and density of those immunoreactive cells. As shown in Fig. 5B and D, NSE immunoreactive cells in the submucosal layer, as well as in myenteric plexuses have large immunostained cell bodies with granular cytoplasmic stained patterns and Bis immunoreactivity was also observed in the cell bodies in the same cells in subsequent sections (Fig. 5A, C). Therefore, Bis is expressed in the cell bodies of neurons in the ENS. The pattern for the expression profile of Bis in the colon was similar to that for the small intestine, showing the immunostaining in the ENS and smooth muscles (data not shown). The relatively thicker smooth muscle layers in the colon appear to be the source of the higher Bis expression in the colon, rather than in the jejunum or ileum, as found in a Western assay (Fig. 1A).


Expression of Bis in the mouse gastrointestinal system.

Lee YD, Yoon JS, Yoon HH, Youn HJ, Kim J, Lee JH - Anat Cell Biol (2012)

Comparison of immunoreactivity for Bis (A, C) and neuron specific esterase (NSE) (B, D) in adjacent sections of the jejunum. The large cell bodies, which were immunostained with Bis antibodies (A, C), were also positive for NSE (B, D) in submucosal plexus (arrows), as well as in myetneric plexus (arrowheads). Higher magnifications of the boxes in A and B were shown in C and D, respectively. Scale bars=20 µm (A-D).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3472142&req=5

Figure 5: Comparison of immunoreactivity for Bis (A, C) and neuron specific esterase (NSE) (B, D) in adjacent sections of the jejunum. The large cell bodies, which were immunostained with Bis antibodies (A, C), were also positive for NSE (B, D) in submucosal plexus (arrows), as well as in myetneric plexus (arrowheads). Higher magnifications of the boxes in A and B were shown in C and D, respectively. Scale bars=20 µm (A-D).
Mentions: In addition to the squamous epitheliums and smooth muscles, Bis immunoreactivity was specifically detected in the myenteric nerve plexus, also called Auerbach's plexus [28], which is located between inner and outer smooth muscles that cover the esophagus, stomach and intestines (Figs. 2D, 3B, 5A). Another enteric nerve plexus, which is mainly present in the submucosa of the small intestine, called Meissner's plexus, also showed Bis immunoreactivy, the level of which were comparable to that in Auerbach's plexus (Figs. 3A, 5A). The enteric nerve plexus is composed by several types of cell populations, including neurons, glia, and interstitial cells of Cajal, and mesenchymal fibroblasts [28, 29]. An examination at higher magnification indicates that Bis immunoreactivity is localized in two populations in the enteric nerve plexus. Bis expresses in the cytoplasm of cell bodies in a population with a large nucleus and obvious nucleoli representing neurons (Fig. 3A, C). Bis expression was also detected in the cytoplasm and the extending process of the cells, which have a smaller nucleus than smooth muscle cells, indicating enteric glial cells (Fig. 3B, D). To identify the Bis-immunoreactive cells in the enteric nerve plexus, double immunofluorescence labeling was conducted, using a Bis antibody and gial GFAP antibody as a marker of enteric glial cells. Fig. 4 shows that nearly all of the GFAP expressing enteric glial cells are also immunoreactive for Bis, corresponding to a fraction of the Bis-expressing cells. We also performed immunohistochemistry with an antibody for NSE, using serial sections next to the Bis-stained sections, to compare with the distribution and density of those immunoreactive cells. As shown in Fig. 5B and D, NSE immunoreactive cells in the submucosal layer, as well as in myenteric plexuses have large immunostained cell bodies with granular cytoplasmic stained patterns and Bis immunoreactivity was also observed in the cell bodies in the same cells in subsequent sections (Fig. 5A, C). Therefore, Bis is expressed in the cell bodies of neurons in the ENS. The pattern for the expression profile of Bis in the colon was similar to that for the small intestine, showing the immunostaining in the ENS and smooth muscles (data not shown). The relatively thicker smooth muscle layers in the colon appear to be the source of the higher Bis expression in the colon, rather than in the jejunum or ileum, as found in a Western assay (Fig. 1A).

Bottom Line: Ganglionated plexuses, located in submucous layers, as well as intermuscular layers, were specifically immunoreactive for Bis.Immunostaining with neuron specific esterase antibodies indicate that Bis is also present in the cell bodies of ganglions in the enteric nervous system (ENS).Our findings indicate that Bis plays a role in regulating GI functions, such as motility and absorption, through modulating signal transmission between the ENS and smooth muscles or the intestinal epitheliums.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, The Catholic University of Korea College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

ABSTRACT
The Bcl-2 interacting death suppressor (Bis) protein is known to be involved in a variety of pathophysiological conditions. We recently generated bis-deficient mice, which exhibited early lethality with typical nutritional deprivation status. To further investigate the molecular basis for the malnutrition phenotype of bis deficient mice, we explored Bis expression in the digestive system of normal mice. Western blot analysis and quantitative real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis indicated that Bis expression is highest in the esophagus, followed by the stomach, colon, jejunum and ileum. Immunohistochemical data indicated that Bis expression is restricted to the stratified squamous epitheliums in the esophagus and forestomach, and was not notable in the columnar epitheliums in the stomach, small intestine and colon. In addition, strong Bis immunoreactivity was detected in the striated muscles surrounding the esophagus and smooth muscles at a lesser intensity throughout the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Ganglionated plexuses, located in submucous layers, as well as intermuscular layers, were specifically immunoreactive for Bis. Immunofluorescence studies revealed that Bis is co-localized in glial fibrillary acidic protein-expressing enteric glial cells. Immunostaining with neuron specific esterase antibodies indicate that Bis is also present in the cell bodies of ganglions in the enteric nervous system (ENS). Our findings indicate that Bis plays a role in regulating GI functions, such as motility and absorption, through modulating signal transmission between the ENS and smooth muscles or the intestinal epitheliums.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus