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Environmental tobacco smoke and stress as risk factors for miscarriage and preterm births.

Arffin F, Al-Bayaty FH, Hassan J - Arch. Gynecol. Obstet. (2012)

Bottom Line: Many studies have suggested that stress have a role in the etiology of preterm birth.A total of 33 subjects consisted of multiparous pregnant women that were in their early third trimester were chosen for this investigation.Subjects were divided into test group women with adverse pregnancy outcome, control group women with successful pregnancy.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Faculty of Dentistry, Centre of Studies for Periodontology, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Level 19, Tower 2, Science and Technology Complex, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia. drfarha@salam.uitm.edu.my

ABSTRACT

Background: Exposure of pregnant women to environmental tobacco smoke has been shown to be associated with low birth weight. Many studies have suggested that stress have a role in the etiology of preterm birth.

Aims: This study carried out from June 2008 to March 2009 to find the relation between environmental tobacco smoke, stress and miscarriage and preterm births.

Methods: A total of 33 subjects consisted of multiparous pregnant women that were in their early third trimester were chosen for this investigation. Subjects were divided into test group women with adverse pregnancy outcome, control group women with successful pregnancy. Four ml of unstimulated whole saliva were collected. The concentrations of cotinine and cortisol were evaluated using commercially available ELISA kit.

Results: Pregnancies in which the average standardized cortisol during history of previous miscarriage(s) which occurred within 6th-27th week or/and history of preterm labor which occurred within 28th-36th weeks of gestation, demonstrated higher cortisol level (1.0201 ± 0.1855 ng/ml) compared to control group 0.9757 ± 0.2860 ng/ml (P = 0.323); statistical analysis showed no significant differences. Women of control group were more likely to be environmental tobacco smoke exposed (1.2714 ± 1.7639 ng/ml) than women with miscarriage and preterm births (0.9889 ± 0.5498 ng/ml).

Conclusion: The results from this primarily study demonstrated no association between cotinine, cortisol, miscarriage and preterm births.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Level of cortisol verses history of miscarriage and preterm births
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Fig2: Level of cortisol verses history of miscarriage and preterm births

Mentions: We calculated the comparative history of miscarriage and preterm births according to cortisol exposure. Pregnancies in which the average standardized cortisol during history of previous miscarriage(s) which occurred within 6th–27th week or/and history of preterm labor which occurred within 28th–36th weeks of gestation, demonstrated higher cortisol level (1.016 ± SEM 0.182 μg/ml) compared to control group 0.978 ± SEM 0.298 μg/ml (P = 0.392), normal morning levels of saliva cortisol is 0.99 ± 0.42 μg/100 ml, however, statistical analysis showed no significant differences. [Table 3, Fig. 2]. As for the cotinine, there were also outliers in each group. However, the levels of cortisol for these outliers were higher compared to other subjects in the groups.Table 3


Environmental tobacco smoke and stress as risk factors for miscarriage and preterm births.

Arffin F, Al-Bayaty FH, Hassan J - Arch. Gynecol. Obstet. (2012)

Level of cortisol verses history of miscarriage and preterm births
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3472053&req=5

Fig2: Level of cortisol verses history of miscarriage and preterm births
Mentions: We calculated the comparative history of miscarriage and preterm births according to cortisol exposure. Pregnancies in which the average standardized cortisol during history of previous miscarriage(s) which occurred within 6th–27th week or/and history of preterm labor which occurred within 28th–36th weeks of gestation, demonstrated higher cortisol level (1.016 ± SEM 0.182 μg/ml) compared to control group 0.978 ± SEM 0.298 μg/ml (P = 0.392), normal morning levels of saliva cortisol is 0.99 ± 0.42 μg/100 ml, however, statistical analysis showed no significant differences. [Table 3, Fig. 2]. As for the cotinine, there were also outliers in each group. However, the levels of cortisol for these outliers were higher compared to other subjects in the groups.Table 3

Bottom Line: Many studies have suggested that stress have a role in the etiology of preterm birth.A total of 33 subjects consisted of multiparous pregnant women that were in their early third trimester were chosen for this investigation.Subjects were divided into test group women with adverse pregnancy outcome, control group women with successful pregnancy.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Faculty of Dentistry, Centre of Studies for Periodontology, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Level 19, Tower 2, Science and Technology Complex, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia. drfarha@salam.uitm.edu.my

ABSTRACT

Background: Exposure of pregnant women to environmental tobacco smoke has been shown to be associated with low birth weight. Many studies have suggested that stress have a role in the etiology of preterm birth.

Aims: This study carried out from June 2008 to March 2009 to find the relation between environmental tobacco smoke, stress and miscarriage and preterm births.

Methods: A total of 33 subjects consisted of multiparous pregnant women that were in their early third trimester were chosen for this investigation. Subjects were divided into test group women with adverse pregnancy outcome, control group women with successful pregnancy. Four ml of unstimulated whole saliva were collected. The concentrations of cotinine and cortisol were evaluated using commercially available ELISA kit.

Results: Pregnancies in which the average standardized cortisol during history of previous miscarriage(s) which occurred within 6th-27th week or/and history of preterm labor which occurred within 28th-36th weeks of gestation, demonstrated higher cortisol level (1.0201 ± 0.1855 ng/ml) compared to control group 0.9757 ± 0.2860 ng/ml (P = 0.323); statistical analysis showed no significant differences. Women of control group were more likely to be environmental tobacco smoke exposed (1.2714 ± 1.7639 ng/ml) than women with miscarriage and preterm births (0.9889 ± 0.5498 ng/ml).

Conclusion: The results from this primarily study demonstrated no association between cotinine, cortisol, miscarriage and preterm births.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus