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P2X7 signaling promotes microsphere embolism-triggered microglia activation by maintaining elevation of Fas ligand.

Lu YM, Tao RR, Huang JY, Li LT, Liao MH, Li XM, Fukunaga K, Hong ZH, Han F - J Neuroinflammation (2012)

Bottom Line: Furthermore, FasL induced the migration of BV-2 microglia, whereas the neutralization of FasL with a blocking antibody was highly effective in inhibiting ischemia-induced microglial mobility.Similar results were observed in primary microglia from wild-type mice or mice genetically deficient in P2X(7).Finally, the degrees of FasL overproduction and neuronal death were consistently reduced in P2X(7)(-/-) mice compared with wild-type littermates following microsphere embolism insult.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Neurobiology, Key Laboratory of Medical Neurobiology of Ministry of Health of China, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, China.

ABSTRACT

Background: The cerebral microvascular occlusion elicits microvascular injury which mimics the different degrees of stroke severity observed in patients, but the mechanisms underlying these embolic injuries are far from understood. The Fas ligand (FasL)-Fas system has been implicated in a number of pathogenic states. Here, we examined the contribution of microglia-derived FasL to brain inflammatory injury, with a focus on the potential to suppress the FasL increase by inhibition of the P2X(7)-FasL signaling with pharmacological or genetic approaches during ischemia.

Methods: The cerebral microvascular occlusion was induced by microsphere injection in experimental animals. Morphological changes in microglial cells were studied immunohistochemically. The biochemical analyses were used to examine the intracellular changes of P2X(7)/FasL signaling. The BV-2 cells and primary microglia from mice genetically deficient in P2X(7) were used to further establish a linkage between microglia activation and FasL overproduction.

Results: The FasL expression was continuously elevated and was spatiotemporally related to microglia activation following microsphere embolism. Notably, P2X(7) expression concomitantly increased in microglia and presented a distribution pattern that was similar to that of FasL in ED1-positive cells at pathological process of microsphere embolism. Interestingly, FasL generation in cultured microglia cells subjected to oxygen-glucose deprivation-treated neuron-conditioned medium was prevented by the silencing of P2X(7). Furthermore, FasL induced the migration of BV-2 microglia, whereas the neutralization of FasL with a blocking antibody was highly effective in inhibiting ischemia-induced microglial mobility. Similar results were observed in primary microglia from wild-type mice or mice genetically deficient in P2X(7). Finally, the degrees of FasL overproduction and neuronal death were consistently reduced in P2X(7)(-/-) mice compared with wild-type littermates following microsphere embolism insult.

Conclusion: FasL functions as a key component of an immunoreactive response loop by recruiting microglia to the lesion sites through a P2X(7)-dependent mechanism. The specific modulation of P2X(7)/FasL signaling and aberrant microglial activation could provide therapeutic benefits in acute and subacute phase of cerebral microembolic injury.

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Microsphere embolism-induced FasL activation and the apoptosis cascade were inhibited by minocycline treatment in ME rats. (A) Neurological scores were determined 168 h after ME with or without minocycline treatment. Data are expressed as means ± SEM (n = 6 rats). *P <0.05 vs. vehicle-treated rats. (B) Immunoblots demonstrating FasL/Fas cell death signaling measured 168 h after ME with or without post-treatment with minocycline. Quantified data are shown in (C). Data are expressed as means ± SEM (n = 6 rats). *P <0.05; **P <0.01 vs. Sham; #P <0.05 vs. ME group. ME, microsphere embolism.
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Figure 9: Microsphere embolism-induced FasL activation and the apoptosis cascade were inhibited by minocycline treatment in ME rats. (A) Neurological scores were determined 168 h after ME with or without minocycline treatment. Data are expressed as means ± SEM (n = 6 rats). *P <0.05 vs. vehicle-treated rats. (B) Immunoblots demonstrating FasL/Fas cell death signaling measured 168 h after ME with or without post-treatment with minocycline. Quantified data are shown in (C). Data are expressed as means ± SEM (n = 6 rats). *P <0.05; **P <0.01 vs. Sham; #P <0.05 vs. ME group. ME, microsphere embolism.

Mentions: Minocycline has emerged as a potent inhibitor of microglial activation, which is a member of the tetracycline antibiotic family [40,41]. It is interesting to consider whether peripheral administration of minocycline also affect microglia-derived increasing of FasL. As shown in Figure 9 (B, C), the protein level of FasL and FADD significantly increased 168 h after microsphere embolism, whereas prolonged minocycline treatment significantly inhibited elevation of FasL, which paralleled with the decreased FADD expression. These results further enforce that activation of microglia is linked with downstream FasL production in microglia. Concomitantly, we also found that prolonged minocycline treatment lead to improvement in neurological function (Figure 9A).


P2X7 signaling promotes microsphere embolism-triggered microglia activation by maintaining elevation of Fas ligand.

Lu YM, Tao RR, Huang JY, Li LT, Liao MH, Li XM, Fukunaga K, Hong ZH, Han F - J Neuroinflammation (2012)

Microsphere embolism-induced FasL activation and the apoptosis cascade were inhibited by minocycline treatment in ME rats. (A) Neurological scores were determined 168 h after ME with or without minocycline treatment. Data are expressed as means ± SEM (n = 6 rats). *P <0.05 vs. vehicle-treated rats. (B) Immunoblots demonstrating FasL/Fas cell death signaling measured 168 h after ME with or without post-treatment with minocycline. Quantified data are shown in (C). Data are expressed as means ± SEM (n = 6 rats). *P <0.05; **P <0.01 vs. Sham; #P <0.05 vs. ME group. ME, microsphere embolism.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3420259&req=5

Figure 9: Microsphere embolism-induced FasL activation and the apoptosis cascade were inhibited by minocycline treatment in ME rats. (A) Neurological scores were determined 168 h after ME with or without minocycline treatment. Data are expressed as means ± SEM (n = 6 rats). *P <0.05 vs. vehicle-treated rats. (B) Immunoblots demonstrating FasL/Fas cell death signaling measured 168 h after ME with or without post-treatment with minocycline. Quantified data are shown in (C). Data are expressed as means ± SEM (n = 6 rats). *P <0.05; **P <0.01 vs. Sham; #P <0.05 vs. ME group. ME, microsphere embolism.
Mentions: Minocycline has emerged as a potent inhibitor of microglial activation, which is a member of the tetracycline antibiotic family [40,41]. It is interesting to consider whether peripheral administration of minocycline also affect microglia-derived increasing of FasL. As shown in Figure 9 (B, C), the protein level of FasL and FADD significantly increased 168 h after microsphere embolism, whereas prolonged minocycline treatment significantly inhibited elevation of FasL, which paralleled with the decreased FADD expression. These results further enforce that activation of microglia is linked with downstream FasL production in microglia. Concomitantly, we also found that prolonged minocycline treatment lead to improvement in neurological function (Figure 9A).

Bottom Line: Furthermore, FasL induced the migration of BV-2 microglia, whereas the neutralization of FasL with a blocking antibody was highly effective in inhibiting ischemia-induced microglial mobility.Similar results were observed in primary microglia from wild-type mice or mice genetically deficient in P2X(7).Finally, the degrees of FasL overproduction and neuronal death were consistently reduced in P2X(7)(-/-) mice compared with wild-type littermates following microsphere embolism insult.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Neurobiology, Key Laboratory of Medical Neurobiology of Ministry of Health of China, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, China.

ABSTRACT

Background: The cerebral microvascular occlusion elicits microvascular injury which mimics the different degrees of stroke severity observed in patients, but the mechanisms underlying these embolic injuries are far from understood. The Fas ligand (FasL)-Fas system has been implicated in a number of pathogenic states. Here, we examined the contribution of microglia-derived FasL to brain inflammatory injury, with a focus on the potential to suppress the FasL increase by inhibition of the P2X(7)-FasL signaling with pharmacological or genetic approaches during ischemia.

Methods: The cerebral microvascular occlusion was induced by microsphere injection in experimental animals. Morphological changes in microglial cells were studied immunohistochemically. The biochemical analyses were used to examine the intracellular changes of P2X(7)/FasL signaling. The BV-2 cells and primary microglia from mice genetically deficient in P2X(7) were used to further establish a linkage between microglia activation and FasL overproduction.

Results: The FasL expression was continuously elevated and was spatiotemporally related to microglia activation following microsphere embolism. Notably, P2X(7) expression concomitantly increased in microglia and presented a distribution pattern that was similar to that of FasL in ED1-positive cells at pathological process of microsphere embolism. Interestingly, FasL generation in cultured microglia cells subjected to oxygen-glucose deprivation-treated neuron-conditioned medium was prevented by the silencing of P2X(7). Furthermore, FasL induced the migration of BV-2 microglia, whereas the neutralization of FasL with a blocking antibody was highly effective in inhibiting ischemia-induced microglial mobility. Similar results were observed in primary microglia from wild-type mice or mice genetically deficient in P2X(7). Finally, the degrees of FasL overproduction and neuronal death were consistently reduced in P2X(7)(-/-) mice compared with wild-type littermates following microsphere embolism insult.

Conclusion: FasL functions as a key component of an immunoreactive response loop by recruiting microglia to the lesion sites through a P2X(7)-dependent mechanism. The specific modulation of P2X(7)/FasL signaling and aberrant microglial activation could provide therapeutic benefits in acute and subacute phase of cerebral microembolic injury.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus