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Evolution of the FGF Gene Family.

Oulion S, Bertrand S, Escriva H - Int J Evol Biol (2012)

Bottom Line: Efforts have been previously made to decipher the evolutionary history of this family but conclusions were limited due to a poor taxonomic coverage.We took advantage of the availability of many new sequences from diverse metazoan lineages to further explore the possible evolutionary scenarios explaining the diversity of the FGF gene family.Our analyses, based on phylogenetics and synteny conservation approaches, allow us to propose a new classification of FGF genes into eight subfamilies, and to draw hypotheses for the evolutionary events leading to the present diversity of this gene family.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: CNRS, UMR 7232, BIOM, Université Pierre et Marie Curie Paris 06, Observatoire Océanologique, 66650 Banyuls-sur-Mer, France.

ABSTRACT
Fibroblast Growth Factors (FGFs) are small proteins generally secreted, acting through binding to transmembrane tyrosine kinase receptors (FGFRs). Activation of FGFRs triggers several cytoplasmic cascades leading to the modification of cell behavior. FGFs play critical roles in a variety of developmental and physiological processes. Since their discovery in mammals, FGFs have been found in many metazoans and some arthropod viruses. Efforts have been previously made to decipher the evolutionary history of this family but conclusions were limited due to a poor taxonomic coverage. We took advantage of the availability of many new sequences from diverse metazoan lineages to further explore the possible evolutionary scenarios explaining the diversity of the FGF gene family. Our analyses, based on phylogenetics and synteny conservation approaches, allow us to propose a new classification of FGF genes into eight subfamilies, and to draw hypotheses for the evolutionary events leading to the present diversity of this gene family.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Chromosomal maps of human and amphioxus FGF1/2 and FGF4/5/6 genes loci. Synteny is well conserved among vertebrates and amphioxus for FGF1/2 (orange—upper part) and for FGF4/6 (red), which are also syntenic with FGFs 19/21/23 (brown) and with FGF3 (yellow—lower part). The synteny of FGF5 with BMP3, PAQR3, and ANXA3 suggests that this gene belongs to the FGF4/5/6 subfamily, but was probably secondarily translocated with his neighboring genes (BMP3, PAQR3, etc.) close to ANXA3.
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fig3: Chromosomal maps of human and amphioxus FGF1/2 and FGF4/5/6 genes loci. Synteny is well conserved among vertebrates and amphioxus for FGF1/2 (orange—upper part) and for FGF4/6 (red), which are also syntenic with FGFs 19/21/23 (brown) and with FGF3 (yellow—lower part). The synteny of FGF5 with BMP3, PAQR3, and ANXA3 suggests that this gene belongs to the FGF4/5/6 subfamily, but was probably secondarily translocated with his neighboring genes (BMP3, PAQR3, etc.) close to ANXA3.

Mentions: In our hypothesis, an ancestral FGF gene (named FGF3/4/5/6) was duplicated in tandem before chordate diversification. Such duplication might have occurred before eumetazoan diversification or specifically in the chordate ancestor. Thus, the putative ancestor (either eumetazoan or chordate ancestor) had two FGF genes maintained in cluster: FGF3 and FGF4/5/6. This situation can still be observed in the cephalochordate Branchiostoma floridae in which FGFB and FGFE are clustered in a genomic region showing synteny conservation with the vertebrate locus containing the FGFs 3, 4 and 6 [19] (Figure 3). This hypothesis implies a loss of FGF3 in different lineages, the number of lineages that lost FGF3 depends on the timepoint at which this gene appeared (i.e., in urochordates in one hypothesis (Figures 2(b) and 5), or in urochordates, ambulacrarians, protostomes, and cnidarians in the other hypothesis, see Figure 5). According to this scenario the origin of FGF3 would be ancient (i.e., at least prior to chordates diversification) and not due to the vertebrate-specific genome duplications.


Evolution of the FGF Gene Family.

Oulion S, Bertrand S, Escriva H - Int J Evol Biol (2012)

Chromosomal maps of human and amphioxus FGF1/2 and FGF4/5/6 genes loci. Synteny is well conserved among vertebrates and amphioxus for FGF1/2 (orange—upper part) and for FGF4/6 (red), which are also syntenic with FGFs 19/21/23 (brown) and with FGF3 (yellow—lower part). The synteny of FGF5 with BMP3, PAQR3, and ANXA3 suggests that this gene belongs to the FGF4/5/6 subfamily, but was probably secondarily translocated with his neighboring genes (BMP3, PAQR3, etc.) close to ANXA3.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3420111&req=5

fig3: Chromosomal maps of human and amphioxus FGF1/2 and FGF4/5/6 genes loci. Synteny is well conserved among vertebrates and amphioxus for FGF1/2 (orange—upper part) and for FGF4/6 (red), which are also syntenic with FGFs 19/21/23 (brown) and with FGF3 (yellow—lower part). The synteny of FGF5 with BMP3, PAQR3, and ANXA3 suggests that this gene belongs to the FGF4/5/6 subfamily, but was probably secondarily translocated with his neighboring genes (BMP3, PAQR3, etc.) close to ANXA3.
Mentions: In our hypothesis, an ancestral FGF gene (named FGF3/4/5/6) was duplicated in tandem before chordate diversification. Such duplication might have occurred before eumetazoan diversification or specifically in the chordate ancestor. Thus, the putative ancestor (either eumetazoan or chordate ancestor) had two FGF genes maintained in cluster: FGF3 and FGF4/5/6. This situation can still be observed in the cephalochordate Branchiostoma floridae in which FGFB and FGFE are clustered in a genomic region showing synteny conservation with the vertebrate locus containing the FGFs 3, 4 and 6 [19] (Figure 3). This hypothesis implies a loss of FGF3 in different lineages, the number of lineages that lost FGF3 depends on the timepoint at which this gene appeared (i.e., in urochordates in one hypothesis (Figures 2(b) and 5), or in urochordates, ambulacrarians, protostomes, and cnidarians in the other hypothesis, see Figure 5). According to this scenario the origin of FGF3 would be ancient (i.e., at least prior to chordates diversification) and not due to the vertebrate-specific genome duplications.

Bottom Line: Efforts have been previously made to decipher the evolutionary history of this family but conclusions were limited due to a poor taxonomic coverage.We took advantage of the availability of many new sequences from diverse metazoan lineages to further explore the possible evolutionary scenarios explaining the diversity of the FGF gene family.Our analyses, based on phylogenetics and synteny conservation approaches, allow us to propose a new classification of FGF genes into eight subfamilies, and to draw hypotheses for the evolutionary events leading to the present diversity of this gene family.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: CNRS, UMR 7232, BIOM, Université Pierre et Marie Curie Paris 06, Observatoire Océanologique, 66650 Banyuls-sur-Mer, France.

ABSTRACT
Fibroblast Growth Factors (FGFs) are small proteins generally secreted, acting through binding to transmembrane tyrosine kinase receptors (FGFRs). Activation of FGFRs triggers several cytoplasmic cascades leading to the modification of cell behavior. FGFs play critical roles in a variety of developmental and physiological processes. Since their discovery in mammals, FGFs have been found in many metazoans and some arthropod viruses. Efforts have been previously made to decipher the evolutionary history of this family but conclusions were limited due to a poor taxonomic coverage. We took advantage of the availability of many new sequences from diverse metazoan lineages to further explore the possible evolutionary scenarios explaining the diversity of the FGF gene family. Our analyses, based on phylogenetics and synteny conservation approaches, allow us to propose a new classification of FGF genes into eight subfamilies, and to draw hypotheses for the evolutionary events leading to the present diversity of this gene family.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus