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Complete mitochondrial genome of the free-living earwig, Challia fletcheri (Dermaptera: Pygidicranidae) and phylogeny of Polyneoptera.

Wan X, Kim MI, Kim MJ, Kim I - PLoS ONE (2012)

Bottom Line: We sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of the free-living earwig, Challia fletcheri, compared its genomic features to other available mitochondrial sequences from polyneopterous insects.The reversal pattern of skewness is explained in terms of inversion of replication origin.All phylogenetic analyses consistently placed Dermaptera as the sister to Plecoptera, leaving them as the most basal lineage of Polyneoptera or sister to Ephemeroptera, and placed Odonata consistently as the most basal lineage of the Pterygota.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: College of Agriculture & Life Sciences, Chonnam National University, Gwangju, Republic of Korea.

ABSTRACT
The insect order Dermaptera, belonging to Polyneoptera, includes ∼2,000 extant species, but no dermapteran mitochondrial genome has been sequenced. We sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of the free-living earwig, Challia fletcheri, compared its genomic features to other available mitochondrial sequences from polyneopterous insects. In addition, the Dermaptera, together with the other known polyneopteran mitochondrial genome sequences (protein coding, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes), were employed to understand the phylogeny of Polyneoptera, one of the least resolved insect phylogenies, with emphasis on the placement of Dermaptera. The complete mitochondrial genome of C. fletcheri presents the following several unusual features: the longest size in insects is 20,456 bp; it harbors the largest tandem repeat units (TRU) among insects; it displays T- and G-skewness on the major strand and A- and C-skewness on the minor strand, which is a reversal of the general pattern found in most insect mitochondrial genomes, and it possesses a unique gene arrangement characterized by a series of gene translocations and/or inversions. The reversal pattern of skewness is explained in terms of inversion of replication origin. All phylogenetic analyses consistently placed Dermaptera as the sister to Plecoptera, leaving them as the most basal lineage of Polyneoptera or sister to Ephemeroptera, and placed Odonata consistently as the most basal lineage of the Pterygota.

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Phylogeny of polyneopteran orders. (A) Bayesian inference phylogeny obtained with the dataset PCG123RNA; (B) Bayesian inference phylogeny obtained with the dataset PCG12RNA. The numbers associated with the nodes are posterior probabilities obtained by BI analysis with the dataset PCG12RNA (first) or bootstrap values obtained by ML analysis with the dataset PCG12RNA (second) and ML analysis with the dataset PCG123RNA (third). The species of Collembola and Diplura were utilized as outgroups to root the trees. The scale bar indicates the number of substitutions per site.
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pone-0042056-g007: Phylogeny of polyneopteran orders. (A) Bayesian inference phylogeny obtained with the dataset PCG123RNA; (B) Bayesian inference phylogeny obtained with the dataset PCG12RNA. The numbers associated with the nodes are posterior probabilities obtained by BI analysis with the dataset PCG12RNA (first) or bootstrap values obtained by ML analysis with the dataset PCG12RNA (second) and ML analysis with the dataset PCG123RNA (third). The species of Collembola and Diplura were utilized as outgroups to root the trees. The scale bar indicates the number of substitutions per site.

Mentions: To study the phylogeny of Polyneoptera, we performed Bayesian Inference (BI) and Maximum Likelihood (ML) analyses based on several datasets such as all codon positions of 13 PCGs plus all RNAs (rRNAs and tRNAs) (PCG123RNA) and 1st +2nd codon positions of 13 PCGs plus all RNAs (PCG12RNA), along with 2 partitioning strategies for BI analyses. Here, we only present 2 phylogenetic topologies obtained with the datasets PCG123RNA and PCG12RNA (Figure 7), because the analyses based on partitioning strategies also supported the either of 2 topologies presented (data not shown).


Complete mitochondrial genome of the free-living earwig, Challia fletcheri (Dermaptera: Pygidicranidae) and phylogeny of Polyneoptera.

Wan X, Kim MI, Kim MJ, Kim I - PLoS ONE (2012)

Phylogeny of polyneopteran orders. (A) Bayesian inference phylogeny obtained with the dataset PCG123RNA; (B) Bayesian inference phylogeny obtained with the dataset PCG12RNA. The numbers associated with the nodes are posterior probabilities obtained by BI analysis with the dataset PCG12RNA (first) or bootstrap values obtained by ML analysis with the dataset PCG12RNA (second) and ML analysis with the dataset PCG123RNA (third). The species of Collembola and Diplura were utilized as outgroups to root the trees. The scale bar indicates the number of substitutions per site.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3412835&req=5

pone-0042056-g007: Phylogeny of polyneopteran orders. (A) Bayesian inference phylogeny obtained with the dataset PCG123RNA; (B) Bayesian inference phylogeny obtained with the dataset PCG12RNA. The numbers associated with the nodes are posterior probabilities obtained by BI analysis with the dataset PCG12RNA (first) or bootstrap values obtained by ML analysis with the dataset PCG12RNA (second) and ML analysis with the dataset PCG123RNA (third). The species of Collembola and Diplura were utilized as outgroups to root the trees. The scale bar indicates the number of substitutions per site.
Mentions: To study the phylogeny of Polyneoptera, we performed Bayesian Inference (BI) and Maximum Likelihood (ML) analyses based on several datasets such as all codon positions of 13 PCGs plus all RNAs (rRNAs and tRNAs) (PCG123RNA) and 1st +2nd codon positions of 13 PCGs plus all RNAs (PCG12RNA), along with 2 partitioning strategies for BI analyses. Here, we only present 2 phylogenetic topologies obtained with the datasets PCG123RNA and PCG12RNA (Figure 7), because the analyses based on partitioning strategies also supported the either of 2 topologies presented (data not shown).

Bottom Line: We sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of the free-living earwig, Challia fletcheri, compared its genomic features to other available mitochondrial sequences from polyneopterous insects.The reversal pattern of skewness is explained in terms of inversion of replication origin.All phylogenetic analyses consistently placed Dermaptera as the sister to Plecoptera, leaving them as the most basal lineage of Polyneoptera or sister to Ephemeroptera, and placed Odonata consistently as the most basal lineage of the Pterygota.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: College of Agriculture & Life Sciences, Chonnam National University, Gwangju, Republic of Korea.

ABSTRACT
The insect order Dermaptera, belonging to Polyneoptera, includes ∼2,000 extant species, but no dermapteran mitochondrial genome has been sequenced. We sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of the free-living earwig, Challia fletcheri, compared its genomic features to other available mitochondrial sequences from polyneopterous insects. In addition, the Dermaptera, together with the other known polyneopteran mitochondrial genome sequences (protein coding, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes), were employed to understand the phylogeny of Polyneoptera, one of the least resolved insect phylogenies, with emphasis on the placement of Dermaptera. The complete mitochondrial genome of C. fletcheri presents the following several unusual features: the longest size in insects is 20,456 bp; it harbors the largest tandem repeat units (TRU) among insects; it displays T- and G-skewness on the major strand and A- and C-skewness on the minor strand, which is a reversal of the general pattern found in most insect mitochondrial genomes, and it possesses a unique gene arrangement characterized by a series of gene translocations and/or inversions. The reversal pattern of skewness is explained in terms of inversion of replication origin. All phylogenetic analyses consistently placed Dermaptera as the sister to Plecoptera, leaving them as the most basal lineage of Polyneoptera or sister to Ephemeroptera, and placed Odonata consistently as the most basal lineage of the Pterygota.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus