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Ocean acidification in a geoengineering context.

Williamson P, Turley C - Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci (2012)

Bottom Line: Fundamental changes to marine chemistry are occurring because of increasing carbon dioxide (CO(2)) in the atmosphere.There has already been an average pH decrease of 0.1 in the upper ocean, and continued unconstrained carbon emissions would further reduce average upper ocean pH by approximately 0.3 by 2100.The future magnitude of such effects will be very closely linked to atmospheric CO(2); they will, therefore, depend on the success of emission reduction, and could also be constrained by geoengineering based on most carbon dioxide removal (CDR) techniques.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ, UK. p.williamson@uea.ac.uk

ABSTRACT
Fundamental changes to marine chemistry are occurring because of increasing carbon dioxide (CO(2)) in the atmosphere. Ocean acidity (H(+) concentration) and bicarbonate ion concentrations are increasing, whereas carbonate ion concentrations are decreasing. There has already been an average pH decrease of 0.1 in the upper ocean, and continued unconstrained carbon emissions would further reduce average upper ocean pH by approximately 0.3 by 2100. Laboratory experiments, observations and projections indicate that such ocean acidification may have ecological and biogeochemical impacts that last for many thousands of years. The future magnitude of such effects will be very closely linked to atmospheric CO(2); they will, therefore, depend on the success of emission reduction, and could also be constrained by geoengineering based on most carbon dioxide removal (CDR) techniques. However, some ocean-based CDR approaches would (if deployed on a climatically significant scale) re-locate acidification from the upper ocean to the seafloor or elsewhere in the ocean interior. If solar radiation management were to be the main policy response to counteract global warming, ocean acidification would continue to be driven by increases in atmospheric CO(2), although with additional temperature-related effects on CO(2) and CaCO(3) solubility and terrestrial carbon sequestration.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Conceptual representation of possible future ocean acidification impacts on planktonic and benthic organisms, with implications for ecosystems and ecosystem services. DMS, dimethylsulphide; DMSP, dimethylsulphoniopropionate; Ω, saturation state (for CaCO3). Image: T. Tyrrell and P. Williamson.
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RSTA20120167F3: Conceptual representation of possible future ocean acidification impacts on planktonic and benthic organisms, with implications for ecosystems and ecosystem services. DMS, dimethylsulphide; DMSP, dimethylsulphoniopropionate; Ω, saturation state (for CaCO3). Image: T. Tyrrell and P. Williamson.

Mentions: Major national and international programmes are currently underway to address these issues. These programmes use standardized protocols [91] to improve intercomparability; they are also attempting to integrate experimental studies, fieldwork and modelling, with effort directed at elucidating genetic and physiological factors that affect both short- and long-term responses. The overall goal is to assess ocean acidification impacts from the molecular to global level, involving studies not only of direct effects on organisms, but also of the potential for indirect effects on biodiversity, climate and socio-economic systems (figure 3).Figure 3.


Ocean acidification in a geoengineering context.

Williamson P, Turley C - Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci (2012)

Conceptual representation of possible future ocean acidification impacts on planktonic and benthic organisms, with implications for ecosystems and ecosystem services. DMS, dimethylsulphide; DMSP, dimethylsulphoniopropionate; Ω, saturation state (for CaCO3). Image: T. Tyrrell and P. Williamson.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3405667&req=5

RSTA20120167F3: Conceptual representation of possible future ocean acidification impacts on planktonic and benthic organisms, with implications for ecosystems and ecosystem services. DMS, dimethylsulphide; DMSP, dimethylsulphoniopropionate; Ω, saturation state (for CaCO3). Image: T. Tyrrell and P. Williamson.
Mentions: Major national and international programmes are currently underway to address these issues. These programmes use standardized protocols [91] to improve intercomparability; they are also attempting to integrate experimental studies, fieldwork and modelling, with effort directed at elucidating genetic and physiological factors that affect both short- and long-term responses. The overall goal is to assess ocean acidification impacts from the molecular to global level, involving studies not only of direct effects on organisms, but also of the potential for indirect effects on biodiversity, climate and socio-economic systems (figure 3).Figure 3.

Bottom Line: Fundamental changes to marine chemistry are occurring because of increasing carbon dioxide (CO(2)) in the atmosphere.There has already been an average pH decrease of 0.1 in the upper ocean, and continued unconstrained carbon emissions would further reduce average upper ocean pH by approximately 0.3 by 2100.The future magnitude of such effects will be very closely linked to atmospheric CO(2); they will, therefore, depend on the success of emission reduction, and could also be constrained by geoengineering based on most carbon dioxide removal (CDR) techniques.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ, UK. p.williamson@uea.ac.uk

ABSTRACT
Fundamental changes to marine chemistry are occurring because of increasing carbon dioxide (CO(2)) in the atmosphere. Ocean acidity (H(+) concentration) and bicarbonate ion concentrations are increasing, whereas carbonate ion concentrations are decreasing. There has already been an average pH decrease of 0.1 in the upper ocean, and continued unconstrained carbon emissions would further reduce average upper ocean pH by approximately 0.3 by 2100. Laboratory experiments, observations and projections indicate that such ocean acidification may have ecological and biogeochemical impacts that last for many thousands of years. The future magnitude of such effects will be very closely linked to atmospheric CO(2); they will, therefore, depend on the success of emission reduction, and could also be constrained by geoengineering based on most carbon dioxide removal (CDR) techniques. However, some ocean-based CDR approaches would (if deployed on a climatically significant scale) re-locate acidification from the upper ocean to the seafloor or elsewhere in the ocean interior. If solar radiation management were to be the main policy response to counteract global warming, ocean acidification would continue to be driven by increases in atmospheric CO(2), although with additional temperature-related effects on CO(2) and CaCO(3) solubility and terrestrial carbon sequestration.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus