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The biological effects of subacute inhalation of diesel exhaust following addition of cerium oxide nanoparticles in atherosclerosis-prone mice.

Cassee FR, Campbell A, Boere AJ, McLean SG, Duffin R, Krystek P, Gosens I, Miller MR - Environ. Res. (2012)

Bottom Line: Addition of CeO(2) to fuel resulted in a reduction of the number (30%) and surface area (10%) of the particles in the exhaust, whereas the gaseous co-pollutants were increased (6-8%).These results imply that addition of CeO(2) nanoparticles to fuel decreases the number of particles in exhaust and may reduce atherosclerotic burden associated with exposure to standard diesel fuel.However, further testing is required to ensure that such an approach is not associated with a chronic inflammatory response which may eventually cause long-term health effects.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, PO box 1, 3720 BA Bilthoven, The Netherlands. flemming.cassee@rivm.nl

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Detection of cerium in the soot from the exhaust of an engine run on cerium-spiked diesel. (A) Grey areas are diesel soot. The small white dots are Ce-containing particles. Image obtained by TEM/High Angle Annular Dark Field (HAADF). Typical geometric size of nanoparticles in the scanned area: 4 ± 1 nm. The rectangle represents the area scanned during EDX spectrum acquisition (see (B)). (B) Qualitative identification of Ce and Cu by EDX-spectrum of the marked area.
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f0005: Detection of cerium in the soot from the exhaust of an engine run on cerium-spiked diesel. (A) Grey areas are diesel soot. The small white dots are Ce-containing particles. Image obtained by TEM/High Angle Annular Dark Field (HAADF). Typical geometric size of nanoparticles in the scanned area: 4 ± 1 nm. The rectangle represents the area scanned during EDX spectrum acquisition (see (B)). (B) Qualitative identification of Ce and Cu by EDX-spectrum of the marked area.

Mentions: Prior to adding to the fuel, the most abundant particle size in the ENVIROX cerium oxide additive was 15.6±0.2 nm. A few large particles with sizes ∼200 nm were seen infrequently. The particle size (mass mean diameter) of diesel exhaust particles were similar for DE and DCeE groups (Table 1). TEM analysis of loaded filters from DCeE exposures identified numerous types of particles consisting of a wide range of elements (K, Na, Cl, Mg, Si, Al, O, FeOx, TiOx, AlOx, Ni, Cr, Fe, Ca, S, Ba, Sn). Small nanoparticles were observed within the clusters of soot particles that yielded EDX spectra with C and Ce peaks (Fig. 1). Filters from DCeE exposures contained 5.5±4.0 μg Ce/mg loading of soot in comparison to 0.2±0.1 μg Ce/mg of soot from DE exposures. Unexposed collection filters contained insignificant levels of Ce (<10 ng abs; n=3).


The biological effects of subacute inhalation of diesel exhaust following addition of cerium oxide nanoparticles in atherosclerosis-prone mice.

Cassee FR, Campbell A, Boere AJ, McLean SG, Duffin R, Krystek P, Gosens I, Miller MR - Environ. Res. (2012)

Detection of cerium in the soot from the exhaust of an engine run on cerium-spiked diesel. (A) Grey areas are diesel soot. The small white dots are Ce-containing particles. Image obtained by TEM/High Angle Annular Dark Field (HAADF). Typical geometric size of nanoparticles in the scanned area: 4 ± 1 nm. The rectangle represents the area scanned during EDX spectrum acquisition (see (B)). (B) Qualitative identification of Ce and Cu by EDX-spectrum of the marked area.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3405523&req=5

f0005: Detection of cerium in the soot from the exhaust of an engine run on cerium-spiked diesel. (A) Grey areas are diesel soot. The small white dots are Ce-containing particles. Image obtained by TEM/High Angle Annular Dark Field (HAADF). Typical geometric size of nanoparticles in the scanned area: 4 ± 1 nm. The rectangle represents the area scanned during EDX spectrum acquisition (see (B)). (B) Qualitative identification of Ce and Cu by EDX-spectrum of the marked area.
Mentions: Prior to adding to the fuel, the most abundant particle size in the ENVIROX cerium oxide additive was 15.6±0.2 nm. A few large particles with sizes ∼200 nm were seen infrequently. The particle size (mass mean diameter) of diesel exhaust particles were similar for DE and DCeE groups (Table 1). TEM analysis of loaded filters from DCeE exposures identified numerous types of particles consisting of a wide range of elements (K, Na, Cl, Mg, Si, Al, O, FeOx, TiOx, AlOx, Ni, Cr, Fe, Ca, S, Ba, Sn). Small nanoparticles were observed within the clusters of soot particles that yielded EDX spectra with C and Ce peaks (Fig. 1). Filters from DCeE exposures contained 5.5±4.0 μg Ce/mg loading of soot in comparison to 0.2±0.1 μg Ce/mg of soot from DE exposures. Unexposed collection filters contained insignificant levels of Ce (<10 ng abs; n=3).

Bottom Line: Addition of CeO(2) to fuel resulted in a reduction of the number (30%) and surface area (10%) of the particles in the exhaust, whereas the gaseous co-pollutants were increased (6-8%).These results imply that addition of CeO(2) nanoparticles to fuel decreases the number of particles in exhaust and may reduce atherosclerotic burden associated with exposure to standard diesel fuel.However, further testing is required to ensure that such an approach is not associated with a chronic inflammatory response which may eventually cause long-term health effects.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, PO box 1, 3720 BA Bilthoven, The Netherlands. flemming.cassee@rivm.nl

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus