Visualisation of J-type counter-current chromatography: a route to understand hydrodynamic phase distribution and retention.
Bottom Line: The experimental results thus obtained were used to examine the effects of the liquid-solid friction force, tangential centrifugal force, and physical properties of the two-phase system on hydrodynamic phase behaviour.This work thus has extended or modified the well-established rule-of-thumb for operating J-type CCC devices and our conclusions can accommodate virtually all the anomalies concerning both hydrophobic and hydrophilic phase systems.Revised recommendations to end users of this technology could thus be derived out of the essence of the present work presumably following further experimental validation and a consensus in the CCC R&D and manufacturing circle.
Affiliation: State Key Laboratory of Bioreactor Engineering, & The College of Biotechnology, East China University of Science & Technology, Shanghai 200237, China. firstname.lastname@example.orgShow MeSH
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Mentions: For the L-I-H flow mode, a series of images were taken to look into details for the dynamic mixing and settling patterns of the ATPS (Fig. 7). In general, phase separation occurs near the distal key nodes (i.e. on the vertically top region of the 2-D spiral column) and wavelike phase mixing occurs near the proximal key nodes (i.e. on the vertically bottom region of the 2-D spiral column) (see the photo in the middle of Fig. 7). Fig. 7 shows only a selection of the results and its complete set is given in S9 (Supplementary material). Near the proximal key nodes, the wavelike mixing teeth appear to be deeper for the external 3 turns of the 2-D spiral than for the internal 2 turns (Fig. 7F–G, or S9 (Supplementary material) at nos. 15, 18, 19, 20, 21 and 23 for more results). In the region clockwise passing the proximal key nodes, the wavelike teeth almost disappear and the two phases seem to be somewhat penetrative with each other.
Affiliation: State Key Laboratory of Bioreactor Engineering, & The College of Biotechnology, East China University of Science & Technology, Shanghai 200237, China. email@example.com