Predictive, preventive and personalised medicine for age-related macular degeneration.
Bottom Line: There are undoubtedly environmental and other risk factors involved and the adverse effect of smoking is well established.New treatments for AMD have emerged with improved prognostic outcome.This remarkable advances in our understanding of the genetic and biological foundations of this disease were derived from a recent convergence of scientific and clinical data.
Affiliation: University Eye Clinic Basel, Basel, Switzerland.
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is an ophthalmologic disease which usually affects older adults and represents the leading cause of legal blindness in Europe and the United States of America. The pathogenesis of AMD is complex and, nowadays, the treatments are targeting more the late form of the disease. Age and genetic make-up are the most important risk factors identified to date. There are undoubtedly environmental and other risk factors involved and the adverse effect of smoking is well established. New treatments for AMD have emerged with improved prognostic outcome. This remarkable advances in our understanding of the genetic and biological foundations of this disease were derived from a recent convergence of scientific and clinical data. In the near future we will have several therapeutic options for treatment of AMD at different stages and therefore personalising more and more the treatment.
No MeSH data available.
Related in: MedlinePlus
Mentions: AMD involves a progressive impairment of the outer layers, especially photoreceptors, in the centre of the retina. Experimental studies have demonstrated that bright light preferentially damages precisely the region that degenerates in AMD. Although the physiological pigments melanin, lutein and zeaxanthin are acting as photoprotectant in the macula, solar radiation is responsible for some of the deteriorative changes that lead to AMD. In the human retina, documented lesions from solar radiation range from the acute effects of sun-gazing to injuries resulting from prolonged periods of exposure in brightly illuminated environments. The damage occurs in the same region that degenerates in AMD . Nevertheless, it is difficult to prove the effect of light promoted AMD (Figs. 1, 2 and 3).Fig. 1
No MeSH data available.