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Control of sulfur partitioning between primary and secondary metabolism in Arabidopsis.

Kopriva S, Mugford SG, Baraniecka P, Lee BR, Matthewman CA, Koprivova A - Front Plant Sci (2012)

Bottom Line: Plants are able to take up inorganic sulfate and assimilate it into a range of bio-organic molecules either after reduction to sulfide or activation to 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate.While the regulation of the reductive part of sulfate assimilation and the synthesis of cysteine has been studied extensively in the past three decades, much less attention has been paid to the control of synthesis of sulfated compounds.Here, the recent progress in our understanding of these processes will be summarized.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Metabolic Biology, John Innes Centre, Norwich Research Park, Norwich, UK.

ABSTRACT
Sulfur is an essential nutrient for all organisms. Plants are able to take up inorganic sulfate and assimilate it into a range of bio-organic molecules either after reduction to sulfide or activation to 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate. While the regulation of the reductive part of sulfate assimilation and the synthesis of cysteine has been studied extensively in the past three decades, much less attention has been paid to the control of synthesis of sulfated compounds. Only recently the genes and enzymes activating sulfate and transferring it onto suitable acceptors have been investigated in detail with emphasis on understanding the diversity of the sulfotransferase gene family and the control of partitioning of sulfur between the two branches of sulfate assimilation. Here, the recent progress in our understanding of these processes will be summarized.

No MeSH data available.


Scheme of plant sulfate metabolism.
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Figure 1: Scheme of plant sulfate metabolism.

Mentions: Plant sulfur metabolism starts with taking up inorganic sulfate (Figure 1). The uptake is facilitated by sulfate transporters present in plasma membranes. Different cells possess different complements of individual sulfate transporters depending on the tissue and developmental stage (Buchner et al., 2004; Takahashi et al., 2011). Sulfate entering root cells can be rapidly moved through the cortex into the xylem and transported into the above ground plant organs or it can be directly utilized in the roots. Inside the cell it can be transported into the vacuole for storage or used directly for assimilation. Because sulfate is very stable, before assimilation it has to be activated. This is achieved in a reaction with ATP sulfurylase, in which sulfate replaces pyrophosphate in the ATP molecule. The resulting adenosine 5′-phosphosulfate (APS) is a branching point in primary and secondary sulfate assimilation. APS can either be reduced by APS reductase to sulfite in the primary sulfate assimilation pathway, or it can be phosphorylated by APS kinase to 3′-phosphoadenosine 5′-phosphosulfate (PAPS). PAPS is the active sulfate donor for the incorporation of sulfur into a variety of secondary products. Sulfite is reduced by sulfite reductase to sulfide, which is the form of reduced sulfur incorporated into the amino acid skeleton of O-acetylserine to form cysteine, the first product of primary sulfate assimilation (Figure 1). Cysteine can be used for protein and peptide synthesis or as a reduced sulfur donor for biosynthesis of methionine and a large range of co-enzymes and co-factors.


Control of sulfur partitioning between primary and secondary metabolism in Arabidopsis.

Kopriva S, Mugford SG, Baraniecka P, Lee BR, Matthewman CA, Koprivova A - Front Plant Sci (2012)

Scheme of plant sulfate metabolism.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3400089&req=5

Figure 1: Scheme of plant sulfate metabolism.
Mentions: Plant sulfur metabolism starts with taking up inorganic sulfate (Figure 1). The uptake is facilitated by sulfate transporters present in plasma membranes. Different cells possess different complements of individual sulfate transporters depending on the tissue and developmental stage (Buchner et al., 2004; Takahashi et al., 2011). Sulfate entering root cells can be rapidly moved through the cortex into the xylem and transported into the above ground plant organs or it can be directly utilized in the roots. Inside the cell it can be transported into the vacuole for storage or used directly for assimilation. Because sulfate is very stable, before assimilation it has to be activated. This is achieved in a reaction with ATP sulfurylase, in which sulfate replaces pyrophosphate in the ATP molecule. The resulting adenosine 5′-phosphosulfate (APS) is a branching point in primary and secondary sulfate assimilation. APS can either be reduced by APS reductase to sulfite in the primary sulfate assimilation pathway, or it can be phosphorylated by APS kinase to 3′-phosphoadenosine 5′-phosphosulfate (PAPS). PAPS is the active sulfate donor for the incorporation of sulfur into a variety of secondary products. Sulfite is reduced by sulfite reductase to sulfide, which is the form of reduced sulfur incorporated into the amino acid skeleton of O-acetylserine to form cysteine, the first product of primary sulfate assimilation (Figure 1). Cysteine can be used for protein and peptide synthesis or as a reduced sulfur donor for biosynthesis of methionine and a large range of co-enzymes and co-factors.

Bottom Line: Plants are able to take up inorganic sulfate and assimilate it into a range of bio-organic molecules either after reduction to sulfide or activation to 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate.While the regulation of the reductive part of sulfate assimilation and the synthesis of cysteine has been studied extensively in the past three decades, much less attention has been paid to the control of synthesis of sulfated compounds.Here, the recent progress in our understanding of these processes will be summarized.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Metabolic Biology, John Innes Centre, Norwich Research Park, Norwich, UK.

ABSTRACT
Sulfur is an essential nutrient for all organisms. Plants are able to take up inorganic sulfate and assimilate it into a range of bio-organic molecules either after reduction to sulfide or activation to 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate. While the regulation of the reductive part of sulfate assimilation and the synthesis of cysteine has been studied extensively in the past three decades, much less attention has been paid to the control of synthesis of sulfated compounds. Only recently the genes and enzymes activating sulfate and transferring it onto suitable acceptors have been investigated in detail with emphasis on understanding the diversity of the sulfotransferase gene family and the control of partitioning of sulfur between the two branches of sulfate assimilation. Here, the recent progress in our understanding of these processes will be summarized.

No MeSH data available.