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Recent and past musical activity predicts cognitive aging variability: direct comparison with general lifestyle activities.

Hanna-Pladdy B, Gajewski B - Front Hum Neurosci (2012)

Bottom Line: Also, the timing of engagement (age of acquisition, past versus recent) was assessed in predictive models of successful cognitive aging.Musicians scored higher on tests of phonemic fluency, verbal working memory, verbal immediate recall, visuospatial judgment, and motor dexterity, but did not differ in other general leisure activities.Furthermore, they imply that early age of musical acquisition, sustained and maintained during advanced age, may enhance cognitive functions and buffer age and education influences.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Departments of Neurology, and Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine Atlanta, GA, USA.

ABSTRACT
Studies evaluating the impact of modifiable lifestyle factors on cognition offer potential insights into sources of cognitive aging variability. Recently, we reported an association between extent of musical instrumental practice throughout the life span (greater than 10 years) on preserved cognitive functioning in advanced age. These findings raise the question of whether there are training-induced brain changes in musicians that can transfer to non-musical cognitive abilities to allow for compensation of age-related cognitive declines. However, because of the relationship between engagement in general lifestyle activities and preserved cognition, it remains unclear whether these findings are specifically driven by musical training or the types of individuals likely to engage in greater activities in general. The current study controlled for general activity level in evaluating cognition between musicians and nomusicians. Also, the timing of engagement (age of acquisition, past versus recent) was assessed in predictive models of successful cognitive aging. Seventy age and education matched older musicians (>10 years) and non-musicians (ages 59-80) were evaluated on neuropsychological tests and general lifestyle activities. Musicians scored higher on tests of phonemic fluency, verbal working memory, verbal immediate recall, visuospatial judgment, and motor dexterity, but did not differ in other general leisure activities. Partition analyses were conducted on significant cognitive measures to determine aspects of musical training predictive of enhanced cognition. The first partition analysis revealed education best predicted visuospatial functions in musicians, followed by recent musical engagement which offset low education. In the second partition analysis, early age of musical acquisition (<9 years) predicted enhanced verbal working memory in musicians, while analyses for other measures were not predictive. Recent and past musical activity, but not general lifestyle activities, predicted variability across both verbal and visuospatial domains in aging. These findings are suggestive of different use-dependent adaptation periods depending on cognitive domain. Furthermore, they imply that early age of musical acquisition, sustained and maintained during advanced age, may enhance cognitive functions and buffer age and education influences.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Partition analysis for grooved pegboard non-dominant hand scaled scores.
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Figure 4: Partition analysis for grooved pegboard non-dominant hand scaled scores.

Mentions: The partition trees for JLO (Figure 1), LNS (Figure 2), and GP dominant and non-dominant hands (Figures 3 and 4) demonstrated the largest effect sizes for the models of musicians with f2 = 0.18, 0.16, 0.21, and 0.20 respectively. Partition trees for CVLT-SDFR, Letter Fluency, and Tower were not significant for musicians. The musicians with higher education (i.e., greater than 17 years) had higher JLO scores (mean = 58.19, SD = 2.43) than the less educated musicians (mean = 54.94, SD = 3.75), while general activity level did not reliable predict JLO performance for the more educated. Among the less educated musicians, musicians with recent musical activity had higher scores (mean = 56.1, SD = 3.04) than those who did not actively play in advanced age (mean = 53.9, SD = 4.17). The LNS partition tree revealed that musicians with earlier age of acquisition (less than 9 years of age) had better verbal working memory functions (mean = 13.15, SD = 2.01) than musicians with age of acquisition after 9 years of age (mean = 11.28, SD = 1.94). Once again, general activity level did not reliably predict LNS performance. Among the older (>70 years of age) musicians, those with education greater than 17 years had higher GP dominant hand scores (mean = 8.4, SD = 1.14) than those with less than 17 years of education (mean = 6.3, SD = 1.5). However, among the older musicians with less than 17 years of education, active musical participation subtly enhanced non-dominant hand GP performance (mean = 6.6, SD = 0.894) relative to inactivity (mean = 6.4, SD = 1.52), although age less than 70 and education greater than 17 years was the best predictor of high GP performance.


Recent and past musical activity predicts cognitive aging variability: direct comparison with general lifestyle activities.

Hanna-Pladdy B, Gajewski B - Front Hum Neurosci (2012)

Partition analysis for grooved pegboard non-dominant hand scaled scores.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3400047&req=5

Figure 4: Partition analysis for grooved pegboard non-dominant hand scaled scores.
Mentions: The partition trees for JLO (Figure 1), LNS (Figure 2), and GP dominant and non-dominant hands (Figures 3 and 4) demonstrated the largest effect sizes for the models of musicians with f2 = 0.18, 0.16, 0.21, and 0.20 respectively. Partition trees for CVLT-SDFR, Letter Fluency, and Tower were not significant for musicians. The musicians with higher education (i.e., greater than 17 years) had higher JLO scores (mean = 58.19, SD = 2.43) than the less educated musicians (mean = 54.94, SD = 3.75), while general activity level did not reliable predict JLO performance for the more educated. Among the less educated musicians, musicians with recent musical activity had higher scores (mean = 56.1, SD = 3.04) than those who did not actively play in advanced age (mean = 53.9, SD = 4.17). The LNS partition tree revealed that musicians with earlier age of acquisition (less than 9 years of age) had better verbal working memory functions (mean = 13.15, SD = 2.01) than musicians with age of acquisition after 9 years of age (mean = 11.28, SD = 1.94). Once again, general activity level did not reliably predict LNS performance. Among the older (>70 years of age) musicians, those with education greater than 17 years had higher GP dominant hand scores (mean = 8.4, SD = 1.14) than those with less than 17 years of education (mean = 6.3, SD = 1.5). However, among the older musicians with less than 17 years of education, active musical participation subtly enhanced non-dominant hand GP performance (mean = 6.6, SD = 0.894) relative to inactivity (mean = 6.4, SD = 1.52), although age less than 70 and education greater than 17 years was the best predictor of high GP performance.

Bottom Line: Also, the timing of engagement (age of acquisition, past versus recent) was assessed in predictive models of successful cognitive aging.Musicians scored higher on tests of phonemic fluency, verbal working memory, verbal immediate recall, visuospatial judgment, and motor dexterity, but did not differ in other general leisure activities.Furthermore, they imply that early age of musical acquisition, sustained and maintained during advanced age, may enhance cognitive functions and buffer age and education influences.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Departments of Neurology, and Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine Atlanta, GA, USA.

ABSTRACT
Studies evaluating the impact of modifiable lifestyle factors on cognition offer potential insights into sources of cognitive aging variability. Recently, we reported an association between extent of musical instrumental practice throughout the life span (greater than 10 years) on preserved cognitive functioning in advanced age. These findings raise the question of whether there are training-induced brain changes in musicians that can transfer to non-musical cognitive abilities to allow for compensation of age-related cognitive declines. However, because of the relationship between engagement in general lifestyle activities and preserved cognition, it remains unclear whether these findings are specifically driven by musical training or the types of individuals likely to engage in greater activities in general. The current study controlled for general activity level in evaluating cognition between musicians and nomusicians. Also, the timing of engagement (age of acquisition, past versus recent) was assessed in predictive models of successful cognitive aging. Seventy age and education matched older musicians (>10 years) and non-musicians (ages 59-80) were evaluated on neuropsychological tests and general lifestyle activities. Musicians scored higher on tests of phonemic fluency, verbal working memory, verbal immediate recall, visuospatial judgment, and motor dexterity, but did not differ in other general leisure activities. Partition analyses were conducted on significant cognitive measures to determine aspects of musical training predictive of enhanced cognition. The first partition analysis revealed education best predicted visuospatial functions in musicians, followed by recent musical engagement which offset low education. In the second partition analysis, early age of musical acquisition (<9 years) predicted enhanced verbal working memory in musicians, while analyses for other measures were not predictive. Recent and past musical activity, but not general lifestyle activities, predicted variability across both verbal and visuospatial domains in aging. These findings are suggestive of different use-dependent adaptation periods depending on cognitive domain. Furthermore, they imply that early age of musical acquisition, sustained and maintained during advanced age, may enhance cognitive functions and buffer age and education influences.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus