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Defining an adequate sample of earlywood vessels for retrospective injury detection in diffuse-porous species.

Arbellay E, Corona C, Stoffel M, Fonti P, Decaulne A - PLoS ONE (2012)

Bottom Line: Vessels of broad-leaved trees have been analyzed to study how trees deal with various environmental factors.Based on the results of this study, we recommend analyzing at least 30 vessels in each ring.Within the 10 mm wide segment of the injury ring, wound-induced reduction in vessel lumen size did not fade with increasing radial and tangential distances, but we nevertheless advise favoring early earlywood vessels located closest to the injury.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory of Dendrogeomorphology, Institute of Geological Sciences, University of Berne, Berne, Switzerland. estelle.arbellay@dendrolab.ch

ABSTRACT
Vessels of broad-leaved trees have been analyzed to study how trees deal with various environmental factors. Cambial injury, in particular, has been reported to induce the formation of narrower conduits. Yet, little or no effort has been devoted to the elaboration of vessel sampling strategies for retrospective injury detection based on vessel lumen size reduction. To fill this methodological gap, four wounded individuals each of grey alder (Alnus incana (L.) Moench) and downy birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh.) were harvested in an avalanche path. Earlywood vessel lumina were measured and compared for each tree between the injury ring built during the growing season following wounding and the control ring laid down the previous year. Measurements were performed along a 10 mm wide radial strip, located directly next to the injury. Specifically, this study aimed at (i) investigating the intra-annual duration and local extension of vessel narrowing close to the wound margin and (ii) identifying an adequate sample of earlywood vessels (number and intra-ring location of cells) attesting to cambial injury. Based on the results of this study, we recommend analyzing at least 30 vessels in each ring. Within the 10 mm wide segment of the injury ring, wound-induced reduction in vessel lumen size did not fade with increasing radial and tangential distances, but we nevertheless advise favoring early earlywood vessels located closest to the injury. These findings, derived from two species widespread across subarctic, mountainous, and temperate regions, will assist retrospective injury detection in Alnus, Betula, and other diffuse-porous species as well as future related research on hydraulic implications after wounding.

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Adequate sample depth for the eight individuals investigated.Sample depth values were considered optimal when vessel sampling showed 95 to 100% of significant P-values (Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test, * P<0.05, ** P<0.01, *** P<0.001). P-value percentage calculations were independently performed within the whole earlywood (WE), the early earlywood (EE), and the late earlywood (LE). Graphs show percentage of significant P-values as a function of sample depth for each individual when considering WE and P<0.01 (cf. grey column in tables).
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pone-0038824-g002: Adequate sample depth for the eight individuals investigated.Sample depth values were considered optimal when vessel sampling showed 95 to 100% of significant P-values (Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test, * P<0.05, ** P<0.01, *** P<0.001). P-value percentage calculations were independently performed within the whole earlywood (WE), the early earlywood (EE), and the late earlywood (LE). Graphs show percentage of significant P-values as a function of sample depth for each individual when considering WE and P<0.01 (cf. grey column in tables).

Mentions: Both A. incana and B. pubescens showed a very highly significant (Table 1, ANOVA test, P<0.001) reduction in vessel lumen size between the control ring and the injury ring, ranging from 42 to 64% for lumen area and from 20 to 39% for lumen diameter. Wounding also induced a diminution in the number of vessels (up to 68%). The minimal number of cells necessary for injury detection was very strongly negatively correlated with the magnitude of vessel narrowing (r = −0.91, WE, P<0.001). For instance, cambial injury caused average vessel lumen area (AVLA) to decrease by 61% in Betula I (Table 1), which necessitated the measurement of 9 vessels to identify the disturbance in the injury ring (Figure 2, EE, P<0.05). Betula IV, in comparison, displayed a lower AVLA decrease (42%) and thus required a larger sample depth (28 vessels).


Defining an adequate sample of earlywood vessels for retrospective injury detection in diffuse-porous species.

Arbellay E, Corona C, Stoffel M, Fonti P, Decaulne A - PLoS ONE (2012)

Adequate sample depth for the eight individuals investigated.Sample depth values were considered optimal when vessel sampling showed 95 to 100% of significant P-values (Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test, * P<0.05, ** P<0.01, *** P<0.001). P-value percentage calculations were independently performed within the whole earlywood (WE), the early earlywood (EE), and the late earlywood (LE). Graphs show percentage of significant P-values as a function of sample depth for each individual when considering WE and P<0.01 (cf. grey column in tables).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3383697&req=5

pone-0038824-g002: Adequate sample depth for the eight individuals investigated.Sample depth values were considered optimal when vessel sampling showed 95 to 100% of significant P-values (Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test, * P<0.05, ** P<0.01, *** P<0.001). P-value percentage calculations were independently performed within the whole earlywood (WE), the early earlywood (EE), and the late earlywood (LE). Graphs show percentage of significant P-values as a function of sample depth for each individual when considering WE and P<0.01 (cf. grey column in tables).
Mentions: Both A. incana and B. pubescens showed a very highly significant (Table 1, ANOVA test, P<0.001) reduction in vessel lumen size between the control ring and the injury ring, ranging from 42 to 64% for lumen area and from 20 to 39% for lumen diameter. Wounding also induced a diminution in the number of vessels (up to 68%). The minimal number of cells necessary for injury detection was very strongly negatively correlated with the magnitude of vessel narrowing (r = −0.91, WE, P<0.001). For instance, cambial injury caused average vessel lumen area (AVLA) to decrease by 61% in Betula I (Table 1), which necessitated the measurement of 9 vessels to identify the disturbance in the injury ring (Figure 2, EE, P<0.05). Betula IV, in comparison, displayed a lower AVLA decrease (42%) and thus required a larger sample depth (28 vessels).

Bottom Line: Vessels of broad-leaved trees have been analyzed to study how trees deal with various environmental factors.Based on the results of this study, we recommend analyzing at least 30 vessels in each ring.Within the 10 mm wide segment of the injury ring, wound-induced reduction in vessel lumen size did not fade with increasing radial and tangential distances, but we nevertheless advise favoring early earlywood vessels located closest to the injury.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory of Dendrogeomorphology, Institute of Geological Sciences, University of Berne, Berne, Switzerland. estelle.arbellay@dendrolab.ch

ABSTRACT
Vessels of broad-leaved trees have been analyzed to study how trees deal with various environmental factors. Cambial injury, in particular, has been reported to induce the formation of narrower conduits. Yet, little or no effort has been devoted to the elaboration of vessel sampling strategies for retrospective injury detection based on vessel lumen size reduction. To fill this methodological gap, four wounded individuals each of grey alder (Alnus incana (L.) Moench) and downy birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh.) were harvested in an avalanche path. Earlywood vessel lumina were measured and compared for each tree between the injury ring built during the growing season following wounding and the control ring laid down the previous year. Measurements were performed along a 10 mm wide radial strip, located directly next to the injury. Specifically, this study aimed at (i) investigating the intra-annual duration and local extension of vessel narrowing close to the wound margin and (ii) identifying an adequate sample of earlywood vessels (number and intra-ring location of cells) attesting to cambial injury. Based on the results of this study, we recommend analyzing at least 30 vessels in each ring. Within the 10 mm wide segment of the injury ring, wound-induced reduction in vessel lumen size did not fade with increasing radial and tangential distances, but we nevertheless advise favoring early earlywood vessels located closest to the injury. These findings, derived from two species widespread across subarctic, mountainous, and temperate regions, will assist retrospective injury detection in Alnus, Betula, and other diffuse-porous species as well as future related research on hydraulic implications after wounding.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus