Limits...
Diesel exhaust exposure, wheezing and sneezing.

Bernstein DI - Allergy Asthma Immunol Res (2012)

Bottom Line: To date, epidemiologic investigations indicate that children living in close proximity to heavily travelled roads are more likely to be atopic and wheeze.Proximity to stop and go traffic with large concentrations of bus and truck traffic predicted persistent wheezing during infancy.High ECAT was significantly associated with wheezing at age 1 as well as persistent wheezing at age 3.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of Immunology, Allergy and Rheumatology, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH, USA.

ABSTRACT
The rising incidence of allergic disorders in developed countries is unexplained. Exposure to traffic related air pollutants may be an important cause of wheezing and asthma in childhood. Experimental evidence from human studies suggests that diesel exhaust particles, constituents of fine particulate matter less than 2.5 microns (PM(2.5)), may act to enhance IgE mediated aeroallergen sensitization and Th2 directed cytokine responses. To date, epidemiologic investigations indicate that children living in close proximity to heavily travelled roads are more likely to be atopic and wheeze. The Cincinnati Childhood Allergy and Air Pollution Study (CCAAPS) birth cohort study was initiated to test the hypothesis that early high exposure to traffic related air pollutants is associated with early aeroallergen sensitization and allergic respiratory phenotypes. Using an exposure cohort design, more than 700 infants born to atopic parents were recruited at age 1 living either less than 400 meters (high traffic pollutant exposure) or greater than 1,500 meters (low exposure) from a major road. Children were medically evaluated and underwent skin prick testing with aeroallergen at screening, and re-evaluated sequentially at ages 1, 2, 3, 4, and 7. In this study, both proximity and land use regression (LUR) models of traffic air pollutant exposure have been assessed. Proximity to stop and go traffic with large concentrations of bus and truck traffic predicted persistent wheezing during infancy. The LUR model estimated elemental carbon attributable to traffic (ECAT) as a proxy for diesel exhaust particulate exposure. High ECAT was significantly associated with wheezing at age 1 as well as persistent wheezing at age 3. High mold exposure predicted a well defined asthma phenotype at age 7.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

The Cincinnati Childhood Allergy and Air Pollution Study (CCAAPS) ambient PM2.5 monitoring network20
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3378923&req=5

Figure 1: The Cincinnati Childhood Allergy and Air Pollution Study (CCAAPS) ambient PM2.5 monitoring network20

Mentions: The second model used in the studies employed land use regression (LUR) models for estimating personal exposure to traffic pollutants in primary residences and schools of the children.18 In the CCAAPS Study, this was achieved by measuring elemental carbon in PM2.5 air samples collected in 27 sampling sites in the Greater Cincinnati area during the first year of the study. The advantage of measuring particulate matter constituents is the high spatial variability and sharp drop in the exposure gradient as distance increases from road sources of roads heavily traveled by buses and trucks. In this case, elemental carbon extracted from PM2.5 samples, was used as a signature of exposure. In addition to quantifying elemental carbon concentration, the LUR model incorporated key univariate predictors including major roads within 400 meters, bus routes located within 100 meters of dwellings, number of trucks within 400 meters per day and land elevation. The final estimate of personal exposure to traffic related pollutants is referred to as "elemental carbon attributable to traffic" or ECAT. As shown in Figure, average daily ambient ECAT exposure was estimated at each sampling site in the Greater Cincinnati Area.20


Diesel exhaust exposure, wheezing and sneezing.

Bernstein DI - Allergy Asthma Immunol Res (2012)

The Cincinnati Childhood Allergy and Air Pollution Study (CCAAPS) ambient PM2.5 monitoring network20
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3378923&req=5

Figure 1: The Cincinnati Childhood Allergy and Air Pollution Study (CCAAPS) ambient PM2.5 monitoring network20
Mentions: The second model used in the studies employed land use regression (LUR) models for estimating personal exposure to traffic pollutants in primary residences and schools of the children.18 In the CCAAPS Study, this was achieved by measuring elemental carbon in PM2.5 air samples collected in 27 sampling sites in the Greater Cincinnati area during the first year of the study. The advantage of measuring particulate matter constituents is the high spatial variability and sharp drop in the exposure gradient as distance increases from road sources of roads heavily traveled by buses and trucks. In this case, elemental carbon extracted from PM2.5 samples, was used as a signature of exposure. In addition to quantifying elemental carbon concentration, the LUR model incorporated key univariate predictors including major roads within 400 meters, bus routes located within 100 meters of dwellings, number of trucks within 400 meters per day and land elevation. The final estimate of personal exposure to traffic related pollutants is referred to as "elemental carbon attributable to traffic" or ECAT. As shown in Figure, average daily ambient ECAT exposure was estimated at each sampling site in the Greater Cincinnati Area.20

Bottom Line: To date, epidemiologic investigations indicate that children living in close proximity to heavily travelled roads are more likely to be atopic and wheeze.Proximity to stop and go traffic with large concentrations of bus and truck traffic predicted persistent wheezing during infancy.High ECAT was significantly associated with wheezing at age 1 as well as persistent wheezing at age 3.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of Immunology, Allergy and Rheumatology, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH, USA.

ABSTRACT
The rising incidence of allergic disorders in developed countries is unexplained. Exposure to traffic related air pollutants may be an important cause of wheezing and asthma in childhood. Experimental evidence from human studies suggests that diesel exhaust particles, constituents of fine particulate matter less than 2.5 microns (PM(2.5)), may act to enhance IgE mediated aeroallergen sensitization and Th2 directed cytokine responses. To date, epidemiologic investigations indicate that children living in close proximity to heavily travelled roads are more likely to be atopic and wheeze. The Cincinnati Childhood Allergy and Air Pollution Study (CCAAPS) birth cohort study was initiated to test the hypothesis that early high exposure to traffic related air pollutants is associated with early aeroallergen sensitization and allergic respiratory phenotypes. Using an exposure cohort design, more than 700 infants born to atopic parents were recruited at age 1 living either less than 400 meters (high traffic pollutant exposure) or greater than 1,500 meters (low exposure) from a major road. Children were medically evaluated and underwent skin prick testing with aeroallergen at screening, and re-evaluated sequentially at ages 1, 2, 3, 4, and 7. In this study, both proximity and land use regression (LUR) models of traffic air pollutant exposure have been assessed. Proximity to stop and go traffic with large concentrations of bus and truck traffic predicted persistent wheezing during infancy. The LUR model estimated elemental carbon attributable to traffic (ECAT) as a proxy for diesel exhaust particulate exposure. High ECAT was significantly associated with wheezing at age 1 as well as persistent wheezing at age 3. High mold exposure predicted a well defined asthma phenotype at age 7.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus