Regeneration of the heart.
Bottom Line: First, although endogenous mammalian cardiac regeneration clearly seems to decline rapidly after birth, it may still persist in adulthood.Second, recent breakthroughs have enabled reprogramming of cells that were apparently terminally differentiated, either by dedifferentiation into pluripotent stem cells or by transdifferentiation into cardiac myocytes.In this review, we discuss the current status of research on cardiac regeneration, with a focus on the challenges that hold back therapeutic development.
Affiliation: Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Partners Research Building, Cambridge, MA, USA. email@example.comShow MeSH
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Mentions: The plasticity of the mammalian heart and the identification of cell preparations that demonstrate potency for cardiac differentiation has sparked efforts to develop regenerative therapeutic strategies. The therapeutic challenge is considerable: a typical large myocardial infarction that leads to heart failure will kill around 1 billion cardiac myocytes (Laflamme & Murry, 2005), roughly a quarter of the heart's myocytes (Fig 4). A possible therapeutic approach would coax an endogenous stem cell population or an exogenously delivered cell-based therapy to replace lost cardiac myocytes in a coordinated fashion with long-term functional integration. Amongst the myriad of potential cell-based therapies, no clear winning strategy has so far emerged (Segers & Lee, 2008).
Affiliation: Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Partners Research Building, Cambridge, MA, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org