The dynamics of T cells during persistent Staphylococcus aureus infection: from antigen-reactivity to in vivo anergy.
Bottom Line: The mechanisms by which persistent infections are maintained involve both bacterial escape strategies and modulation of the host immune response.So far, the investigations in this area have focused on strategies used by S. aureus to persist within the host.The T cell hyporesponsiveness was reverted by co-stimulation with the phorbol ester PMA, an activator of protein kinase C, suggesting that a failure in the T cell receptor (TCR)-proximal signalling events underlie the hyporesponsive phenotype.
Affiliation: Infection Immunology Research Group, Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Braunschweig, Germany.Show MeSH
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Mentions: Because the above-described experiments strongly suggest that B and/or T cells are necessary for the S. aureus containment during the persistent infection, we next investigated the relevance of each population. Initially, we examined the dynamics of B cells in the spleen and peripheral lymph nodes of S. aureus-infected mice by combining cell counting and flow cytometric analysis. The total number of splenic B cells sharply increased (∼5-fold) during the first 30 days p.i. followed by a progressive decline (Fig 6A). Similarly, the number of B cells increased in the peripheral lymph nodes during the first 30 days of infection but was not statistically significant when compared with uninfected animals (Fig 6B). After day 30, the B cell population in the lymph nodes returned to values similar to uninfected controls (Fig 6B). During the course of infection, the B cells developed into plasma cells since sera from infected mice contained high titers of anti-S. aureus IgG antibodies (Fig S7 of Supporting information).
Affiliation: Infection Immunology Research Group, Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Braunschweig, Germany.