The dynamics of T cells during persistent Staphylococcus aureus infection: from antigen-reactivity to in vivo anergy.
Bottom Line: The mechanisms by which persistent infections are maintained involve both bacterial escape strategies and modulation of the host immune response.So far, the investigations in this area have focused on strategies used by S. aureus to persist within the host.The T cell hyporesponsiveness was reverted by co-stimulation with the phorbol ester PMA, an activator of protein kinase C, suggesting that a failure in the T cell receptor (TCR)-proximal signalling events underlie the hyporesponsive phenotype.
Affiliation: Infection Immunology Research Group, Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Braunschweig, Germany.Show MeSH
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Mentions: To gain a deeper insight into the local infection process, we performed histopathological examination of kidney tissue obtained at 56 days p.i. As shown in Fig 2A, kidney pathology was characterized by the presence of abscesses, which are a typical pathological feature of staphylococcal infections (Cheng et al, 2009; Lowy, 1998). Renal abscesses comprised an inner accumulation of neutrophils (Fig 2B) and were surrounded by a rim of apoptotic neutrophils (Fig 2C), a peripheral fibrin wall (Fig 2A, fw) and an external layer of B and T cells (Fig 2D). Interestingly, we found collections of staphylococci within the fibrin wall (Fig 2E). This observation suggests that the initiation of abscesses probably involved the deposition of fibrin in response to infection-related inflammation and the sequestration of the staphylococci in the fibrin clot. Eventually, the abscesses resolved leaving empty spaces or caverns in the infected organ (Fig 2F, asterisks).
Affiliation: Infection Immunology Research Group, Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Braunschweig, Germany.