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Cytotoxic T lymphocytes: Sniping cancer stem cells.

Hirohashi Y, Torigoe T, Inoda S, Morita R, Kochin V, Sato N - Oncoimmunology (2012)

Bottom Line: Cancer stem cells (CSCs)/cancer-initiating cells (CICs) are characterized as a small population of cancer cells that have high tumor-initiating ability.How can we eradicate CSCs/CICs?Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) might be a promising answer.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pathology; Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine; Sapporo, Japan.

ABSTRACT
Cancer stem cells (CSCs)/cancer-initiating cells (CICs) are characterized as a small population of cancer cells that have high tumor-initiating ability. CSCs/CICs are resistant to several cancer therapies, and eradication of CSCs/CICs is essential to cure cancer. How can we eradicate CSCs/CICs? Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) might be a promising answer.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Figure 1. CSC/CIC targeting immunotherapy. (A) Characters of CSC/CIC. CSC/CIC has three distinct characteristics: (1) high tumor-initiating ability, (2) self-renewal ability and (3) differentiation ability. (B) Three groups of tumor-associated antigens. Tumor-associated antigens can be classified into 3 groups according to the expression in CSC/CIC and non-CSC/CIC: (1) CSC/CIC antigens, which are expressed in CSCs/CICs but not in non-CSCs/CICs (e.g., MAGE-A3 and MAGE-A4); (2) shared antigens, which are expressed in both CSCs/CICs and non-CSCs/CICs (e.g., CEP55, SURVIVIN); and (3) non-CSC/CIC antigens, which are expressed in only non-CSCs/CICs but not in CSCs/CICs (e.g., AMACR, HIFPH3). (C) CSC/CIC-targeting immunotherapy. CSC/CIC antigen specific CTLs recognize only higher tumorigenic CSCs/CICs, whereas shared antigen specific CTLs, NK cells and γδT cells recognize both CSCs/CICs and non-CSCs/CICs. CSCs/CICs might be eliminated most efficiently by CSC/CIC antigen-specific CTLs.
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Figure 1: Figure 1. CSC/CIC targeting immunotherapy. (A) Characters of CSC/CIC. CSC/CIC has three distinct characteristics: (1) high tumor-initiating ability, (2) self-renewal ability and (3) differentiation ability. (B) Three groups of tumor-associated antigens. Tumor-associated antigens can be classified into 3 groups according to the expression in CSC/CIC and non-CSC/CIC: (1) CSC/CIC antigens, which are expressed in CSCs/CICs but not in non-CSCs/CICs (e.g., MAGE-A3 and MAGE-A4); (2) shared antigens, which are expressed in both CSCs/CICs and non-CSCs/CICs (e.g., CEP55, SURVIVIN); and (3) non-CSC/CIC antigens, which are expressed in only non-CSCs/CICs but not in CSCs/CICs (e.g., AMACR, HIFPH3). (C) CSC/CIC-targeting immunotherapy. CSC/CIC antigen specific CTLs recognize only higher tumorigenic CSCs/CICs, whereas shared antigen specific CTLs, NK cells and γδT cells recognize both CSCs/CICs and non-CSCs/CICs. CSCs/CICs might be eliminated most efficiently by CSC/CIC antigen-specific CTLs.

Mentions: Cancer stem-like cells (CSCs)/cancer-initiating cells (CICs) are defined as a small population of cancer cells that have (1) high tumor-initiating ability, (2) self-renewal ability and (3) differentiation ability (Fig. 1A).1 In recent studies, CSCs/CICs have shown to be resistant to cancer therapies by their senescence state, high expression of transporters to efflux anti-cancer drugs, high expression of apoptosis inhibitors, low expression of reactive oxygen species.2 Thus, the action of CSCs/CICs are regarded as major mechanisms of cancer recurrence, distant metastasis and treatment resistance. However, effective cancer treatment targeting CSCs/CICs effectively have not been reported so far.


Cytotoxic T lymphocytes: Sniping cancer stem cells.

Hirohashi Y, Torigoe T, Inoda S, Morita R, Kochin V, Sato N - Oncoimmunology (2012)

Figure 1. CSC/CIC targeting immunotherapy. (A) Characters of CSC/CIC. CSC/CIC has three distinct characteristics: (1) high tumor-initiating ability, (2) self-renewal ability and (3) differentiation ability. (B) Three groups of tumor-associated antigens. Tumor-associated antigens can be classified into 3 groups according to the expression in CSC/CIC and non-CSC/CIC: (1) CSC/CIC antigens, which are expressed in CSCs/CICs but not in non-CSCs/CICs (e.g., MAGE-A3 and MAGE-A4); (2) shared antigens, which are expressed in both CSCs/CICs and non-CSCs/CICs (e.g., CEP55, SURVIVIN); and (3) non-CSC/CIC antigens, which are expressed in only non-CSCs/CICs but not in CSCs/CICs (e.g., AMACR, HIFPH3). (C) CSC/CIC-targeting immunotherapy. CSC/CIC antigen specific CTLs recognize only higher tumorigenic CSCs/CICs, whereas shared antigen specific CTLs, NK cells and γδT cells recognize both CSCs/CICs and non-CSCs/CICs. CSCs/CICs might be eliminated most efficiently by CSC/CIC antigen-specific CTLs.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3376951&req=5

Figure 1: Figure 1. CSC/CIC targeting immunotherapy. (A) Characters of CSC/CIC. CSC/CIC has three distinct characteristics: (1) high tumor-initiating ability, (2) self-renewal ability and (3) differentiation ability. (B) Three groups of tumor-associated antigens. Tumor-associated antigens can be classified into 3 groups according to the expression in CSC/CIC and non-CSC/CIC: (1) CSC/CIC antigens, which are expressed in CSCs/CICs but not in non-CSCs/CICs (e.g., MAGE-A3 and MAGE-A4); (2) shared antigens, which are expressed in both CSCs/CICs and non-CSCs/CICs (e.g., CEP55, SURVIVIN); and (3) non-CSC/CIC antigens, which are expressed in only non-CSCs/CICs but not in CSCs/CICs (e.g., AMACR, HIFPH3). (C) CSC/CIC-targeting immunotherapy. CSC/CIC antigen specific CTLs recognize only higher tumorigenic CSCs/CICs, whereas shared antigen specific CTLs, NK cells and γδT cells recognize both CSCs/CICs and non-CSCs/CICs. CSCs/CICs might be eliminated most efficiently by CSC/CIC antigen-specific CTLs.
Mentions: Cancer stem-like cells (CSCs)/cancer-initiating cells (CICs) are defined as a small population of cancer cells that have (1) high tumor-initiating ability, (2) self-renewal ability and (3) differentiation ability (Fig. 1A).1 In recent studies, CSCs/CICs have shown to be resistant to cancer therapies by their senescence state, high expression of transporters to efflux anti-cancer drugs, high expression of apoptosis inhibitors, low expression of reactive oxygen species.2 Thus, the action of CSCs/CICs are regarded as major mechanisms of cancer recurrence, distant metastasis and treatment resistance. However, effective cancer treatment targeting CSCs/CICs effectively have not been reported so far.

Bottom Line: Cancer stem cells (CSCs)/cancer-initiating cells (CICs) are characterized as a small population of cancer cells that have high tumor-initiating ability.How can we eradicate CSCs/CICs?Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) might be a promising answer.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pathology; Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine; Sapporo, Japan.

ABSTRACT
Cancer stem cells (CSCs)/cancer-initiating cells (CICs) are characterized as a small population of cancer cells that have high tumor-initiating ability. CSCs/CICs are resistant to several cancer therapies, and eradication of CSCs/CICs is essential to cure cancer. How can we eradicate CSCs/CICs? Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) might be a promising answer.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus