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The current trends and future perspectives of prebiotics research: a review

View Article: PubMed Central

ABSTRACT

Prebiotics are non-digestible food ingredients that stimulate the growth of bifidogenic and lactic acid bacteria in the gastro-intestinal tract. Typically, the prebiotics consist of dietary fibers and oligosaccharides. Prebiotics exert a plethora of health-promoting effects, owing to which multi million food and pharma industries have been established. Prebiotics are being implicated in starter culture formulation, gut health maintenance, colitis prevention, cancer inhibition, immunopotentiaton, cholesterol removal, reduction of cardiovascular disease, prevention of obesity and constipation, bacteriocin production, use in fishery, poultry, pig, cattle feed and pet food. Looking at the ever-increasing demand of prebiotics, in this review, recent trends in prebiotic production from new novel sources, from food industrial wastes, prebiotic supplementation in food, commercially available prebiotic agents, prebiotic production by various techniques and future perspectives has been discussed. The critical insight into this hot research area aims to stimulate further ponderance.

No MeSH data available.


Various methods of prebiotics production
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Fig2: Various methods of prebiotics production

Mentions: Currently, the technology for the production of oligosaccharides is limited to extraction from plant sources, acid or enzymatic hydrolysis of polysaccharides or synthesis by transglycosylation reactions. Prebiotic oligosaccharides may also be produced using Leuconostoc fermentation and restricting the polymer size by addition of maltose or galctose. Sugar beet pectin was degraded enzymatically and separated by ion exchange chromatography into series of highly purified homogalacturonide and rhamnogalacturonide oligosaccharides. MALDI-TOF/TOF mass-spectrometry was used to determine the size and structural features. In vitro microbial fermentation by human fecal samples showed a different response to the DP4 and DP5 homogalacturonides on the ratio between Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes. This indicated that pectic oligosaccharides with only slightly different structures have significantly different biological effects (Holck et al. 2011). β-galactosidase from Aspergillus oryzae was immobilized by different methods for the synthesis of GOS from lactose at high concentrations. At optimal conditions, the conversion was reported as 30%. In the sequential batch production, 8,500 g of GOS per gram of enzyme preparation was produced after ten batches, the yield of which was further expected to increase by biocatalyst replacement (Huerta et al. 2011). A recombinant α-glucosidase from Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus JW200, cloned and expressed in E. coli showed strong transglycosylation activity in presence of maltose. The transglucosylation products were identified to be prebiotic isomaltooligosaccharides (Wang et al. 2009). A commercially available endo-inulinase from Aspergillus niger was successfully immobilized onto a chitin carrier for production of FOS from inulin (Quang et al. 2011). A fructofuranosidase enzyme extracted from Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous 269 exhibited a high transfructosylation activity, and it has potential for the industrial production of prebiotic neo-FOSs (Chen et al. 2011). The α-glucosidase from Bacillus licheniformis TH4-2 was used in the glucosyl transfer reaction for the synthesis of a trisaccharide oligosaccharide. The prebiotic nature of this product was suggested from its hydrolysis resistance to enzymes of rat intestine (Nimpiboon et al. 2011). Levan, a polysaccharide from Zymomonas mobilis, was hydrolyzed in a microwave oven to obtain oligofructans that beneficially affect the host by selective stimulation of probiotic bacteria in the colon (de Paula et al. 2008). Yeast cell wall was ruptured by centrifugation and separated from the yeast extract, washed, dried and pasteurized on a steam drum dryer to harvest the prebiotic mannan-oligosaccharides. The various methods of prebiotics production have been illustrated in Fig. 2.Fig. 2


The current trends and future perspectives of prebiotics research: a review
Various methods of prebiotics production
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3376865&req=5

Fig2: Various methods of prebiotics production
Mentions: Currently, the technology for the production of oligosaccharides is limited to extraction from plant sources, acid or enzymatic hydrolysis of polysaccharides or synthesis by transglycosylation reactions. Prebiotic oligosaccharides may also be produced using Leuconostoc fermentation and restricting the polymer size by addition of maltose or galctose. Sugar beet pectin was degraded enzymatically and separated by ion exchange chromatography into series of highly purified homogalacturonide and rhamnogalacturonide oligosaccharides. MALDI-TOF/TOF mass-spectrometry was used to determine the size and structural features. In vitro microbial fermentation by human fecal samples showed a different response to the DP4 and DP5 homogalacturonides on the ratio between Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes. This indicated that pectic oligosaccharides with only slightly different structures have significantly different biological effects (Holck et al. 2011). β-galactosidase from Aspergillus oryzae was immobilized by different methods for the synthesis of GOS from lactose at high concentrations. At optimal conditions, the conversion was reported as 30%. In the sequential batch production, 8,500 g of GOS per gram of enzyme preparation was produced after ten batches, the yield of which was further expected to increase by biocatalyst replacement (Huerta et al. 2011). A recombinant α-glucosidase from Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus JW200, cloned and expressed in E. coli showed strong transglycosylation activity in presence of maltose. The transglucosylation products were identified to be prebiotic isomaltooligosaccharides (Wang et al. 2009). A commercially available endo-inulinase from Aspergillus niger was successfully immobilized onto a chitin carrier for production of FOS from inulin (Quang et al. 2011). A fructofuranosidase enzyme extracted from Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous 269 exhibited a high transfructosylation activity, and it has potential for the industrial production of prebiotic neo-FOSs (Chen et al. 2011). The α-glucosidase from Bacillus licheniformis TH4-2 was used in the glucosyl transfer reaction for the synthesis of a trisaccharide oligosaccharide. The prebiotic nature of this product was suggested from its hydrolysis resistance to enzymes of rat intestine (Nimpiboon et al. 2011). Levan, a polysaccharide from Zymomonas mobilis, was hydrolyzed in a microwave oven to obtain oligofructans that beneficially affect the host by selective stimulation of probiotic bacteria in the colon (de Paula et al. 2008). Yeast cell wall was ruptured by centrifugation and separated from the yeast extract, washed, dried and pasteurized on a steam drum dryer to harvest the prebiotic mannan-oligosaccharides. The various methods of prebiotics production have been illustrated in Fig. 2.Fig. 2

View Article: PubMed Central

ABSTRACT

Prebiotics are non-digestible food ingredients that stimulate the growth of bifidogenic and lactic acid bacteria in the gastro-intestinal tract. Typically, the prebiotics consist of dietary fibers and oligosaccharides. Prebiotics exert a plethora of health-promoting effects, owing to which multi million food and pharma industries have been established. Prebiotics are being implicated in starter culture formulation, gut health maintenance, colitis prevention, cancer inhibition, immunopotentiaton, cholesterol removal, reduction of cardiovascular disease, prevention of obesity and constipation, bacteriocin production, use in fishery, poultry, pig, cattle feed and pet food. Looking at the ever-increasing demand of prebiotics, in this review, recent trends in prebiotic production from new novel sources, from food industrial wastes, prebiotic supplementation in food, commercially available prebiotic agents, prebiotic production by various techniques and future perspectives has been discussed. The critical insight into this hot research area aims to stimulate further ponderance.

No MeSH data available.