Molecular mechanisms of vascular effects of High-density lipoprotein: alterations in cardiovascular disease.
Bottom Line: Moreover, experimental studies have identified potential anti-atherogenic properties of HDL, including promotion of macrophage cholesterol efflux and direct endothelial-protective effects of HDL, such as stimulation of endothelial nitric oxide production and repair, anti-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory and anti-thrombotic properties.Moreover, vascular effects of HDL have been observed to be heterogenous and are altered in patients with CAD or diabetes, a condition that has been termed 'HDL dysfunction'.It will therefore be important to further determine, which biological functions of HDL are critical for its anti-atherosclerotic properties, as well as how these can be measured and targeted.
Affiliation: Department of Cardiology, Cardiovascular Center, University Hospital Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.Show MeSH
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Mentions: In recent years, several properties or functions of HDL have been identified that could exert anti-atherosclerotic effects. Besides promoting macrophage cholesterol efflux and RCT, HDL has more recently been shown to exert direct potentially anti-atherosclerotic effects on endothelial cells, such as the direct stimulation of endothelial nitric oxide production by HDL or endothelial anti-inflammatory effects and anti-oxidant effects that will be discussed in more detail below (Fig 2). Notably, however, recent evidence suggests that vascular effects of HDL can be highly heterogeneous and are altered in patients with cardiovascular disease.
Affiliation: Department of Cardiology, Cardiovascular Center, University Hospital Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.