MicroRNA dysregulation in cancer: diagnostics, monitoring and therapeutics. A comprehensive review.
Bottom Line: MicroRNA expression profiling was shown to be associated with tumour development, progression and response to therapy, suggesting their possible use as diagnostic, prognostic and predictive biomarkers.Moreover, based on the increasing number of studies demonstrating that microRNAs can function as potential oncogenes or oncosuppressor genes, with the goal to improve disease response and increase cure rates, miRNA-based anticancer therapies have recently been exploited, either alone or in combination with current targeted therapies.The advantage of using microRNA approaches is based on its ability to concurrently target multiple effectors of pathways involved in cell differentiation, proliferation and survival.
Affiliation: Start Up Unit, Department of Experimental Oncology, Fondazione IRCCS, Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Milano, Italy.Show MeSH
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Mentions: Following these initial observations, the same group mapped all the known microRNA genes and found many of them located in chromosomal loci prone to deletions or amplifications, as was found in many different human tumours (Calin et al, 2004). Indeed, chromosomal regions encompassing microRNAs involved in the negative regulation of a transcript encoding a known tumour suppressor gene can be amplified in cancer development. This amplification would result in the increased expression of the microRNA and consequent silencing of the tumour suppressor gene. Conversely, microRNAs repressing oncogenes are often located in fragile loci, where deletions or mutations can occur and result in reduced microRNA levels and overexpression of the target oncogene (Fig 2).
Affiliation: Start Up Unit, Department of Experimental Oncology, Fondazione IRCCS, Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Milano, Italy.