MicroRNA dysregulation in cancer: diagnostics, monitoring and therapeutics. A comprehensive review.
Bottom Line: MicroRNA expression profiling was shown to be associated with tumour development, progression and response to therapy, suggesting their possible use as diagnostic, prognostic and predictive biomarkers.Moreover, based on the increasing number of studies demonstrating that microRNAs can function as potential oncogenes or oncosuppressor genes, with the goal to improve disease response and increase cure rates, miRNA-based anticancer therapies have recently been exploited, either alone or in combination with current targeted therapies.The advantage of using microRNA approaches is based on its ability to concurrently target multiple effectors of pathways involved in cell differentiation, proliferation and survival.
Affiliation: Start Up Unit, Department of Experimental Oncology, Fondazione IRCCS, Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Milano, Italy.Show MeSH
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Mentions: To complicate the already intricate scenario, it has been recently reported that miRNAs can bind to ribonucleoproteins in a seed sequence and a RISC-independent manner and then interfere with their RNA binding functions (decoy activity; Beitzinger & Meister, 2010; Fig 1). Three studies have reported that miRNAs can also regulate gene expression at the transcriptional level by direct binding to the DNA (Gonzalez et al, 2008; Khraiwesh et al, 2010; Kim et al, 2008).
Affiliation: Start Up Unit, Department of Experimental Oncology, Fondazione IRCCS, Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Milano, Italy.