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Changing socioeconomic indicators of human plague, New Mexico, USA.

Schotthoefer AM, Eisen RJ, Kugeler KJ, Ettestad P, Reynolds PJ, Brown T, Enscore RE, Cheek J, Bueno R, Targhetta J, Montenieri JA, Gage KL - Emerging Infect. Dis. (2012)

Bottom Line: Socioeconomic indicators associated with temporal changes in the distribution of human plague cases in New Mexico were investigated for 1976-2007.In the 1980s, cases were more likely in census block groups with poor housing conditions, but by the 2000s, cases were associated with affluent areas concentrated in the Santa Fe-Albuquerque region.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA. schotthoefer.anna@mcrf.mfl dclin.edu

ABSTRACT
Socioeconomic indicators associated with temporal changes in the distribution of human plague cases in New Mexico were investigated for 1976-2007. In the 1980s, cases were more likely in census block groups with poor housing conditions, but by the 2000s, cases were associated with affluent areas concentrated in the Santa Fe-Albuquerque region.

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Areas of New Mexico, USA, considered in the current analysis on the basis of those defined as high risk for human plague by Eisen et al. (6) for each time frame examined. A) 1976–1985, B) 1986–1995, C) 1996–2007. Distributions of human cases are displayed and census block groups are color coded as negative or positive for plague cases. Census block group boundaries are indicated in light gray, and counties are outlined in dark gray. Ovals or circle indicate census block groups with significantly (p<0.05) high human plague incidence rates per 1,000 persons, identified by using the Kulldorff space scan statistic (9). Analyses were conducted by using the Poisson probability model and 999 Monte Carlo replications to test for significance.
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Figure 1: Areas of New Mexico, USA, considered in the current analysis on the basis of those defined as high risk for human plague by Eisen et al. (6) for each time frame examined. A) 1976–1985, B) 1986–1995, C) 1996–2007. Distributions of human cases are displayed and census block groups are color coded as negative or positive for plague cases. Census block group boundaries are indicated in light gray, and counties are outlined in dark gray. Ovals or circle indicate census block groups with significantly (p<0.05) high human plague incidence rates per 1,000 persons, identified by using the Kulldorff space scan statistic (9). Analyses were conducted by using the Poisson probability model and 999 Monte Carlo replications to test for significance.

Mentions: We restricted our analyses to peridomestic cases that were reported in the geographic region previously determined to be at high risk on the basis of environmental factors (6). Thus, we included 123 (75.9%) of 162 cases reported in New Mexico during the study period. We also restricted our analyses to the CBGs that had population densities within the range of densities found in plague-positive CBGs (0.05 and 1,425.40 persons/km2). This restriction avoided comparing rural to urban CBGs because plague tends to occur in rural to lightly suburbanized areas. The final area considered encompassed ≈17% of New Mexico (6) and included the entirety or portions of 483 CBGs (Figure; Table 1).


Changing socioeconomic indicators of human plague, New Mexico, USA.

Schotthoefer AM, Eisen RJ, Kugeler KJ, Ettestad P, Reynolds PJ, Brown T, Enscore RE, Cheek J, Bueno R, Targhetta J, Montenieri JA, Gage KL - Emerging Infect. Dis. (2012)

Areas of New Mexico, USA, considered in the current analysis on the basis of those defined as high risk for human plague by Eisen et al. (6) for each time frame examined. A) 1976–1985, B) 1986–1995, C) 1996–2007. Distributions of human cases are displayed and census block groups are color coded as negative or positive for plague cases. Census block group boundaries are indicated in light gray, and counties are outlined in dark gray. Ovals or circle indicate census block groups with significantly (p<0.05) high human plague incidence rates per 1,000 persons, identified by using the Kulldorff space scan statistic (9). Analyses were conducted by using the Poisson probability model and 999 Monte Carlo replications to test for significance.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3376811&req=5

Figure 1: Areas of New Mexico, USA, considered in the current analysis on the basis of those defined as high risk for human plague by Eisen et al. (6) for each time frame examined. A) 1976–1985, B) 1986–1995, C) 1996–2007. Distributions of human cases are displayed and census block groups are color coded as negative or positive for plague cases. Census block group boundaries are indicated in light gray, and counties are outlined in dark gray. Ovals or circle indicate census block groups with significantly (p<0.05) high human plague incidence rates per 1,000 persons, identified by using the Kulldorff space scan statistic (9). Analyses were conducted by using the Poisson probability model and 999 Monte Carlo replications to test for significance.
Mentions: We restricted our analyses to peridomestic cases that were reported in the geographic region previously determined to be at high risk on the basis of environmental factors (6). Thus, we included 123 (75.9%) of 162 cases reported in New Mexico during the study period. We also restricted our analyses to the CBGs that had population densities within the range of densities found in plague-positive CBGs (0.05 and 1,425.40 persons/km2). This restriction avoided comparing rural to urban CBGs because plague tends to occur in rural to lightly suburbanized areas. The final area considered encompassed ≈17% of New Mexico (6) and included the entirety or portions of 483 CBGs (Figure; Table 1).

Bottom Line: Socioeconomic indicators associated with temporal changes in the distribution of human plague cases in New Mexico were investigated for 1976-2007.In the 1980s, cases were more likely in census block groups with poor housing conditions, but by the 2000s, cases were associated with affluent areas concentrated in the Santa Fe-Albuquerque region.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA. schotthoefer.anna@mcrf.mfl dclin.edu

ABSTRACT
Socioeconomic indicators associated with temporal changes in the distribution of human plague cases in New Mexico were investigated for 1976-2007. In the 1980s, cases were more likely in census block groups with poor housing conditions, but by the 2000s, cases were associated with affluent areas concentrated in the Santa Fe-Albuquerque region.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus