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Exposure of US travelers to rabid zebra, Kenya, 2011.

Lankau EW, Montgomery JM, Tack DM, Obonyo M, Kadivane S, Blanton JD, Arvelo W, Jentes ES, Cohen NJ, Brunette GW, Marano N, Rupprecht CE - Emerging Infect. Dis. (2012)

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

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Rabies is an acute progressive encephalitis caused by infection with a lyssavirus (genus Lyssavirus, family Rhabdoviridae)... After travelers at a safari lodge in Kenya were exposed to a rabid zebra, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and international partners conducted a contact investigation to ensure affected travelers received timely exposure assessments and appropriate PEP recommendations... A dog suspected of being rabid bit the zebra on July 31... Attempts to capture the dog for testing were unsuccessful... Rabies was suspected because of neurologic signs and was diagnosed in the zebra after detection of rabies virus antigens by direct fluorescent antibody testing at the Kenya Central Veterinary Laboratory... Lodge staff received results on August 30 and immediately communicated the information to travelers who had visited during July 24–August 26 by email through booking travel agents (because lodge staff did not have traveler contact information)... CDC initiated a contact investigation of US travelers; the World Health Organization International Health Regulations Office coordinated contact investigation for non-US travelers... The Kenya Ministry of Public Health and Sanitation, Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program, and the Kenya Wildlife Service performed environmental assessments, evaluated lodge staff and animal exposures, and reviewed bite surveillance and preparedness in the surrounding district... CDC Rabies Program staff corroborated the diagnosis and genotyped the variant as one associated with dogs in Africa, supporting the presumed transmission through dog bite... CDC obtained traveler contact information from travel agents... Public health intervention was delayed while traveler contact information was obtained... During this delay, travelers sought care from private physicians who made time-sensitive PEP decisions with incomplete information, resulting in unnecessary PEP administration according to published standards... Inclusion of a health provision in travel agency privacy agreements to permit release of traveler contact information for public health use would improve response times for similar events... Travelers to rabies-endemic regions should avoid contact with wild and feral animals, even in seemingly safe captive settings.

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Timeline of events for traveler exposures to a rabid zebra and subsequent contact investigation of US travelers, Kenya, January 2011–September 2011. CDC, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; WHO-HIR, World Health Organization’s International Health Regulations Office.
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Figure 1: Timeline of events for traveler exposures to a rabid zebra and subsequent contact investigation of US travelers, Kenya, January 2011–September 2011. CDC, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; WHO-HIR, World Health Organization’s International Health Regulations Office.

Mentions: In January 2011, an orphaned zebra foal was taken to a safari lodge for care. Tourists were permitted to view, pet, and feed the zebra. A dog suspected of being rabid bit the zebra on July 31. Attempts to capture the dog for testing were unsuccessful. The zebra became ill around August 24 and died on August 26 (Figure).


Exposure of US travelers to rabid zebra, Kenya, 2011.

Lankau EW, Montgomery JM, Tack DM, Obonyo M, Kadivane S, Blanton JD, Arvelo W, Jentes ES, Cohen NJ, Brunette GW, Marano N, Rupprecht CE - Emerging Infect. Dis. (2012)

Timeline of events for traveler exposures to a rabid zebra and subsequent contact investigation of US travelers, Kenya, January 2011–September 2011. CDC, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; WHO-HIR, World Health Organization’s International Health Regulations Office.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3376810&req=5

Figure 1: Timeline of events for traveler exposures to a rabid zebra and subsequent contact investigation of US travelers, Kenya, January 2011–September 2011. CDC, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; WHO-HIR, World Health Organization’s International Health Regulations Office.
Mentions: In January 2011, an orphaned zebra foal was taken to a safari lodge for care. Tourists were permitted to view, pet, and feed the zebra. A dog suspected of being rabid bit the zebra on July 31. Attempts to capture the dog for testing were unsuccessful. The zebra became ill around August 24 and died on August 26 (Figure).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

AUTOMATICALLY GENERATED EXCERPT
Please rate it.

Rabies is an acute progressive encephalitis caused by infection with a lyssavirus (genus Lyssavirus, family Rhabdoviridae)... After travelers at a safari lodge in Kenya were exposed to a rabid zebra, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and international partners conducted a contact investigation to ensure affected travelers received timely exposure assessments and appropriate PEP recommendations... A dog suspected of being rabid bit the zebra on July 31... Attempts to capture the dog for testing were unsuccessful... Rabies was suspected because of neurologic signs and was diagnosed in the zebra after detection of rabies virus antigens by direct fluorescent antibody testing at the Kenya Central Veterinary Laboratory... Lodge staff received results on August 30 and immediately communicated the information to travelers who had visited during July 24–August 26 by email through booking travel agents (because lodge staff did not have traveler contact information)... CDC initiated a contact investigation of US travelers; the World Health Organization International Health Regulations Office coordinated contact investigation for non-US travelers... The Kenya Ministry of Public Health and Sanitation, Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program, and the Kenya Wildlife Service performed environmental assessments, evaluated lodge staff and animal exposures, and reviewed bite surveillance and preparedness in the surrounding district... CDC Rabies Program staff corroborated the diagnosis and genotyped the variant as one associated with dogs in Africa, supporting the presumed transmission through dog bite... CDC obtained traveler contact information from travel agents... Public health intervention was delayed while traveler contact information was obtained... During this delay, travelers sought care from private physicians who made time-sensitive PEP decisions with incomplete information, resulting in unnecessary PEP administration according to published standards... Inclusion of a health provision in travel agency privacy agreements to permit release of traveler contact information for public health use would improve response times for similar events... Travelers to rabies-endemic regions should avoid contact with wild and feral animals, even in seemingly safe captive settings.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus