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Adenoviruses in fecal samples from asymptomatic rhesus macaques, United States.

Roy S, Sandhu A, Medina A, Clawson DS, Wilson JM - Emerging Infect. Dis. (2012)

Bottom Line: To assess the possibility of animal-to-human transmission of SAdVs, we tested fecal samples from asymptomatic rhesus macaques housed in 5 primate facilities in the United States and cultured 23 SAdV isolates.The sequence of SAdV-18 was closely related to that of human adenovirus F across the whole genome, and the new isolates were found to harbor 2 fiber genes similar to those of human adenovirus (HAdV) strains HAdV-40 and HAdV-41, which can cause infectious diarrhea.The high prevalence of adenoviruses in fecal samples from asymptomatic rhesus macaques and the similarity of the isolates to human strains indicates the possibility of animal-to-human transmission of SAdVs.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Division of Transfusion Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA.

ABSTRACT
Adenoviruses can cause infectious diarrheal disease or respiratory infections in humans; 2 recent reports have indicated probable human infection with simian adenoviruses (SAdVs). To assess the possibility of animal-to-human transmission of SAdVs, we tested fecal samples from asymptomatic rhesus macaques housed in 5 primate facilities in the United States and cultured 23 SAdV isolates. Of these, 9 were purified and completely sequenced; 3 SAdV samples from the American Type Culture Collection (SAdV-6, SAdV-18, and SAdV-20) were also completely sequenced. The sequence of SAdV-18 was closely related to that of human adenovirus F across the whole genome, and the new isolates were found to harbor 2 fiber genes similar to those of human adenovirus (HAdV) strains HAdV-40 and HAdV-41, which can cause infectious diarrhea. The high prevalence of adenoviruses in fecal samples from asymptomatic rhesus macaques and the similarity of the isolates to human strains indicates the possibility of animal-to-human transmission of SAdVs.

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Sequence alignments of a subset of simian adenovirus type B (SAdV-B) isolates identified in study of prevalence of adenoviruses in fecal samples from rhesus macaques, United States. The putative fused E3 CR1-αβ protein from isolate A1139 (see Table 2) and the corresponding separately encoded CR1-α and CR1-β proteins from isolate A1312 are shown. The N-terminal (N) and C-terminal (C) sections of the fused A1139 CR1-αβ proteins have been separately aligned with the A1312 CR1-α and CR1-β proteins, respectively. Gray shading indicates homologous regions, red font indicates identical residues, and underlining indicates hydrophobic regions.
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Figure 3: Sequence alignments of a subset of simian adenovirus type B (SAdV-B) isolates identified in study of prevalence of adenoviruses in fecal samples from rhesus macaques, United States. The putative fused E3 CR1-αβ protein from isolate A1139 (see Table 2) and the corresponding separately encoded CR1-α and CR1-β proteins from isolate A1312 are shown. The N-terminal (N) and C-terminal (C) sections of the fused A1139 CR1-αβ proteins have been separately aligned with the A1312 CR1-α and CR1-β proteins, respectively. Gray shading indicates homologous regions, red font indicates identical residues, and underlining indicates hydrophobic regions.

Mentions: The gene content and disposition (as discerned by the presence of ORFs) of the E3 regions of the 9 adenoviruses isolated from macaques are shown in Table 2. The 12.5K protein of unknown function, as well as the anti-apoptotic RID-α and RID-β, and the 14.7K proteins (18), are present in all the newly isolated viruses. They all also harbor homologs of the CR1 proteins that contain conserved domains of unknown function designated CR1 and CR2 (19). However we found that in 6 of the newly sequenced adenoviruses, the 2 CR1 proteins (CR1-α and CR1-β) were fused into a single ORF (Figure 2). An example of the fusion is illustrated in Figure 3, in which the fused CR1 protein (designated CR1-αβ) of the adenovirus isolate A1139 E3 region has been aligned with the CR1-α and CR1-β proteins of the E3 region of A1312. The E3 CR1 proteins possess a single putative transmembrane domain near their C-termini and are likely to have arisen by gene duplication (20,21). The putative transmembrane domain of the CR1-α protein appears to have fused to the hydrophobic (putative) secretion signal of the CR1-β protein. This fused version indicates that the CR1-α and CR1-β proteins are likely disposed on opposite sides of the membrane. One possible model for A1163 CR1-αβ fused protein (based on a prediction by TMPRED, a software program that makes a prediction of membrane-spanning regions and their orientations; www.ch.EMBnet.org) indicates that the N-terminal hydrophobic domain (residues 3–21) is oriented outside to inside (luminal to cytoplasmic), followed by the CR1-α segment on the cytoplasmic side of the membrane. This model predicts the central transmembrane domain (residues 151–170) to be oriented inside to outside with the CR1-β segment on the luminal side. The C-terminal transmembrane domain (residues 430–455) would thus be oriented outside to inside, followed by a highly basic stop transfer segment. Separately encoded CR1-α and -β proteins likely follow this topology as well.


Adenoviruses in fecal samples from asymptomatic rhesus macaques, United States.

Roy S, Sandhu A, Medina A, Clawson DS, Wilson JM - Emerging Infect. Dis. (2012)

Sequence alignments of a subset of simian adenovirus type B (SAdV-B) isolates identified in study of prevalence of adenoviruses in fecal samples from rhesus macaques, United States. The putative fused E3 CR1-αβ protein from isolate A1139 (see Table 2) and the corresponding separately encoded CR1-α and CR1-β proteins from isolate A1312 are shown. The N-terminal (N) and C-terminal (C) sections of the fused A1139 CR1-αβ proteins have been separately aligned with the A1312 CR1-α and CR1-β proteins, respectively. Gray shading indicates homologous regions, red font indicates identical residues, and underlining indicates hydrophobic regions.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3376797&req=5

Figure 3: Sequence alignments of a subset of simian adenovirus type B (SAdV-B) isolates identified in study of prevalence of adenoviruses in fecal samples from rhesus macaques, United States. The putative fused E3 CR1-αβ protein from isolate A1139 (see Table 2) and the corresponding separately encoded CR1-α and CR1-β proteins from isolate A1312 are shown. The N-terminal (N) and C-terminal (C) sections of the fused A1139 CR1-αβ proteins have been separately aligned with the A1312 CR1-α and CR1-β proteins, respectively. Gray shading indicates homologous regions, red font indicates identical residues, and underlining indicates hydrophobic regions.
Mentions: The gene content and disposition (as discerned by the presence of ORFs) of the E3 regions of the 9 adenoviruses isolated from macaques are shown in Table 2. The 12.5K protein of unknown function, as well as the anti-apoptotic RID-α and RID-β, and the 14.7K proteins (18), are present in all the newly isolated viruses. They all also harbor homologs of the CR1 proteins that contain conserved domains of unknown function designated CR1 and CR2 (19). However we found that in 6 of the newly sequenced adenoviruses, the 2 CR1 proteins (CR1-α and CR1-β) were fused into a single ORF (Figure 2). An example of the fusion is illustrated in Figure 3, in which the fused CR1 protein (designated CR1-αβ) of the adenovirus isolate A1139 E3 region has been aligned with the CR1-α and CR1-β proteins of the E3 region of A1312. The E3 CR1 proteins possess a single putative transmembrane domain near their C-termini and are likely to have arisen by gene duplication (20,21). The putative transmembrane domain of the CR1-α protein appears to have fused to the hydrophobic (putative) secretion signal of the CR1-β protein. This fused version indicates that the CR1-α and CR1-β proteins are likely disposed on opposite sides of the membrane. One possible model for A1163 CR1-αβ fused protein (based on a prediction by TMPRED, a software program that makes a prediction of membrane-spanning regions and their orientations; www.ch.EMBnet.org) indicates that the N-terminal hydrophobic domain (residues 3–21) is oriented outside to inside (luminal to cytoplasmic), followed by the CR1-α segment on the cytoplasmic side of the membrane. This model predicts the central transmembrane domain (residues 151–170) to be oriented inside to outside with the CR1-β segment on the luminal side. The C-terminal transmembrane domain (residues 430–455) would thus be oriented outside to inside, followed by a highly basic stop transfer segment. Separately encoded CR1-α and -β proteins likely follow this topology as well.

Bottom Line: To assess the possibility of animal-to-human transmission of SAdVs, we tested fecal samples from asymptomatic rhesus macaques housed in 5 primate facilities in the United States and cultured 23 SAdV isolates.The sequence of SAdV-18 was closely related to that of human adenovirus F across the whole genome, and the new isolates were found to harbor 2 fiber genes similar to those of human adenovirus (HAdV) strains HAdV-40 and HAdV-41, which can cause infectious diarrhea.The high prevalence of adenoviruses in fecal samples from asymptomatic rhesus macaques and the similarity of the isolates to human strains indicates the possibility of animal-to-human transmission of SAdVs.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Division of Transfusion Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA.

ABSTRACT
Adenoviruses can cause infectious diarrheal disease or respiratory infections in humans; 2 recent reports have indicated probable human infection with simian adenoviruses (SAdVs). To assess the possibility of animal-to-human transmission of SAdVs, we tested fecal samples from asymptomatic rhesus macaques housed in 5 primate facilities in the United States and cultured 23 SAdV isolates. Of these, 9 were purified and completely sequenced; 3 SAdV samples from the American Type Culture Collection (SAdV-6, SAdV-18, and SAdV-20) were also completely sequenced. The sequence of SAdV-18 was closely related to that of human adenovirus F across the whole genome, and the new isolates were found to harbor 2 fiber genes similar to those of human adenovirus (HAdV) strains HAdV-40 and HAdV-41, which can cause infectious diarrhea. The high prevalence of adenoviruses in fecal samples from asymptomatic rhesus macaques and the similarity of the isolates to human strains indicates the possibility of animal-to-human transmission of SAdVs.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus