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The Th1:th2 dichotomy of pregnancy and preterm labour.

Sykes L, MacIntyre DA, Yap XJ, Teoh TG, Bennett PR - Mediators Inflamm. (2012)

Bottom Line: Pregnancy is a unique immunological state in which a balance of immune tolerance and suppression is needed to protect the fetus without compromising the mother.The majority of publications that report on aberrant Th1:Th2 balance focus on early pregnancy loss and preeclampsia.We also consider the potential for its use in screening women at high risk of preterm labour and for prophylactic therapeutic measures for the prevention of preterm labour and associated neonatal adverse outcomes.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Parturition Research Group, Department of Surgery and Cancer, Institute of Reproduction and Developmental Biology, Imperial College London, London W12 0NN, UK. l.sykes@imperial.ac.uk

ABSTRACT
Pregnancy is a unique immunological state in which a balance of immune tolerance and suppression is needed to protect the fetus without compromising the mother. It has long been established that a bias from the T helper 1 cytokine profile towards the T helper 2 profile contributes towards successful pregnancy maintenance. The majority of publications that report on aberrant Th1:Th2 balance focus on early pregnancy loss and preeclampsia. Over the last few decades, there has been an increased awareness of the role of infection and inflammation in preterm labour, and the search for new biomarkers to predict preterm labour continues. In this paper, we explore the evidence for an aberrant Th1:Th2 profile associated with preterm labour. We also consider the potential for its use in screening women at high risk of preterm labour and for prophylactic therapeutic measures for the prevention of preterm labour and associated neonatal adverse outcomes.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Summary of the adaptive and innate immune system in pregnancy. Mediators of the adaptive and innate immune system work in parallel to facilitate a balance between immune tolerance of the fetus whilst maintaining the ability to mount a response against invading pathogens. PWBC: peripheral white blood cells.
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Related In: Results  -  Collection


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fig1: Summary of the adaptive and innate immune system in pregnancy. Mediators of the adaptive and innate immune system work in parallel to facilitate a balance between immune tolerance of the fetus whilst maintaining the ability to mount a response against invading pathogens. PWBC: peripheral white blood cells.

Mentions: The fetus can be described as a semiallogeneic graft, being a product of two histoincompatible individuals [3, 4]. This poses a challenge to the mother, to both tolerate and accommodate the fetus, which will express paternal antigens, and maintain an ability to reject in case of overwhelming infection [5]. This challenge is undertaken in part by the immune system. The immune system has two main defence systems: the innate and the adaptive. The innate immune response is a nonspecific reaction towards foreign antigens, whereas the adaptive response forms a very specific reaction towards antigens [6]. Although different immune components are involved in these systems, much overlap and cross-talk exist between the two. Figure 1 summarises the key elements of these systems during pregnancy.


The Th1:th2 dichotomy of pregnancy and preterm labour.

Sykes L, MacIntyre DA, Yap XJ, Teoh TG, Bennett PR - Mediators Inflamm. (2012)

Summary of the adaptive and innate immune system in pregnancy. Mediators of the adaptive and innate immune system work in parallel to facilitate a balance between immune tolerance of the fetus whilst maintaining the ability to mount a response against invading pathogens. PWBC: peripheral white blood cells.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3376783&req=5

fig1: Summary of the adaptive and innate immune system in pregnancy. Mediators of the adaptive and innate immune system work in parallel to facilitate a balance between immune tolerance of the fetus whilst maintaining the ability to mount a response against invading pathogens. PWBC: peripheral white blood cells.
Mentions: The fetus can be described as a semiallogeneic graft, being a product of two histoincompatible individuals [3, 4]. This poses a challenge to the mother, to both tolerate and accommodate the fetus, which will express paternal antigens, and maintain an ability to reject in case of overwhelming infection [5]. This challenge is undertaken in part by the immune system. The immune system has two main defence systems: the innate and the adaptive. The innate immune response is a nonspecific reaction towards foreign antigens, whereas the adaptive response forms a very specific reaction towards antigens [6]. Although different immune components are involved in these systems, much overlap and cross-talk exist between the two. Figure 1 summarises the key elements of these systems during pregnancy.

Bottom Line: Pregnancy is a unique immunological state in which a balance of immune tolerance and suppression is needed to protect the fetus without compromising the mother.The majority of publications that report on aberrant Th1:Th2 balance focus on early pregnancy loss and preeclampsia.We also consider the potential for its use in screening women at high risk of preterm labour and for prophylactic therapeutic measures for the prevention of preterm labour and associated neonatal adverse outcomes.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Parturition Research Group, Department of Surgery and Cancer, Institute of Reproduction and Developmental Biology, Imperial College London, London W12 0NN, UK. l.sykes@imperial.ac.uk

ABSTRACT
Pregnancy is a unique immunological state in which a balance of immune tolerance and suppression is needed to protect the fetus without compromising the mother. It has long been established that a bias from the T helper 1 cytokine profile towards the T helper 2 profile contributes towards successful pregnancy maintenance. The majority of publications that report on aberrant Th1:Th2 balance focus on early pregnancy loss and preeclampsia. Over the last few decades, there has been an increased awareness of the role of infection and inflammation in preterm labour, and the search for new biomarkers to predict preterm labour continues. In this paper, we explore the evidence for an aberrant Th1:Th2 profile associated with preterm labour. We also consider the potential for its use in screening women at high risk of preterm labour and for prophylactic therapeutic measures for the prevention of preterm labour and associated neonatal adverse outcomes.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus