Limits...
Drosophila as a model system to unravel the layers of innate immunity to infection.

Kounatidis I, Ligoxygakis P - Open Biol (2012)

Bottom Line: Innate immunity relies entirely upon germ-line encoded receptors, signalling components and effector molecules for the recognition and elimination of invading pathogens.The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster with its powerful collection of genetic and genomic tools has been the model of choice to develop ideas about innate immunity and host-pathogen interactions.Here, we review current research in the field, encompassing all layers of defence from the role of the microbiota to systemic immune activation, and attempt to speculate on future directions and open questions.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory of Genes and Development, Department of Biochemistry, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QU, UK.

ABSTRACT
Innate immunity relies entirely upon germ-line encoded receptors, signalling components and effector molecules for the recognition and elimination of invading pathogens. The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster with its powerful collection of genetic and genomic tools has been the model of choice to develop ideas about innate immunity and host-pathogen interactions. Here, we review current research in the field, encompassing all layers of defence from the role of the microbiota to systemic immune activation, and attempt to speculate on future directions and open questions.

Show MeSH
Summary of Toll signalling; see text for details.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3376734&req=5

RSOB120075F2: Summary of Toll signalling; see text for details.

Mentions: Following Spz–Toll interaction a receptor–adaptor complex that will transmit the signal from the cell surface to the nucleus is formed. This complex comprises the MyD88 protein, which interacts with Toll through their respective Toll/Interleukin-1 receptor domains [106] and connects with Tube via death domain contacts that will in turn recruit the Drosophila IRAK homologue, the kinase Pelle [107]. The latter will directly or indirectly phosphorylate the IκB homologue Cactus, which is thus targeted for degradation. Upon Cactus degradation, the NF-κB homologues Dorsal or Dif are free to move to the nucleus and regulate hundreds of target genes [108,109]. A positive regulator of the pathway is the RING-domain containing Pellino, acting presumably at the level of Pelle in parallel to mammalian Pellinos that modulate IRAK action [110]. In contrast, a negative regulator is WntD, which reduces Toll activity by preventing translocation of Dorsal to the nucleus [111]. In addition, it has recently been shown that endocytosis is paramount for efficient Toll signalling [112]. A schematic summary of Toll pathway signalling is presented in figure 2.Figure 2.


Drosophila as a model system to unravel the layers of innate immunity to infection.

Kounatidis I, Ligoxygakis P - Open Biol (2012)

Summary of Toll signalling; see text for details.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3376734&req=5

RSOB120075F2: Summary of Toll signalling; see text for details.
Mentions: Following Spz–Toll interaction a receptor–adaptor complex that will transmit the signal from the cell surface to the nucleus is formed. This complex comprises the MyD88 protein, which interacts with Toll through their respective Toll/Interleukin-1 receptor domains [106] and connects with Tube via death domain contacts that will in turn recruit the Drosophila IRAK homologue, the kinase Pelle [107]. The latter will directly or indirectly phosphorylate the IκB homologue Cactus, which is thus targeted for degradation. Upon Cactus degradation, the NF-κB homologues Dorsal or Dif are free to move to the nucleus and regulate hundreds of target genes [108,109]. A positive regulator of the pathway is the RING-domain containing Pellino, acting presumably at the level of Pelle in parallel to mammalian Pellinos that modulate IRAK action [110]. In contrast, a negative regulator is WntD, which reduces Toll activity by preventing translocation of Dorsal to the nucleus [111]. In addition, it has recently been shown that endocytosis is paramount for efficient Toll signalling [112]. A schematic summary of Toll pathway signalling is presented in figure 2.Figure 2.

Bottom Line: Innate immunity relies entirely upon germ-line encoded receptors, signalling components and effector molecules for the recognition and elimination of invading pathogens.The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster with its powerful collection of genetic and genomic tools has been the model of choice to develop ideas about innate immunity and host-pathogen interactions.Here, we review current research in the field, encompassing all layers of defence from the role of the microbiota to systemic immune activation, and attempt to speculate on future directions and open questions.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory of Genes and Development, Department of Biochemistry, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QU, UK.

ABSTRACT
Innate immunity relies entirely upon germ-line encoded receptors, signalling components and effector molecules for the recognition and elimination of invading pathogens. The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster with its powerful collection of genetic and genomic tools has been the model of choice to develop ideas about innate immunity and host-pathogen interactions. Here, we review current research in the field, encompassing all layers of defence from the role of the microbiota to systemic immune activation, and attempt to speculate on future directions and open questions.

Show MeSH